点击注册送体验金

 时间:2012-12-02 01:36:19 贡献者:88weifeng88

导读:UNIT ONE Industrial Engineering Education for the 21st Century 21 世纪的工业工程教育The 21st century is just a few years away. Strategic planners all over the world are using the year 2000 as the point future business activities. Are we all

天津专业英语翻译公司-在线图片欣赏
天津专业英语翻译公司-在线图片欣赏

UNIT ONE Industrial Engineering Education for the 21st Century 21 世纪的工业工程教育The 21st century is just a few years away. Strategic planners all over the world are using the year 2000 as the point future business activities. Are we all ready for that time? As the industrial world prepares to meet the technological challenges of the 21st century, there is a need to focus on the people who will take it there. People will be the most important of the “man-machine-material” systems competing in the next century. IEs should play a crucial role in preparing organizations for the 21st century through their roles as change initiators and facilitators. Improvements are needed in IE undergraduate education if that role is to be successfully carried out. 21 世纪来临在即,全世界的战略家们把 2000 年作为商业活动的焦点。

我们的工业工程教育 为这一时刻的到来做好准备了吗?当工业界去迎接 21 世纪的技术进步时,有必要去关注将 要从事这些技术挑战的人。

在下一个世纪,人将是“人-机-物料”系统竞争中最重要的构成 部分。

工业工程师为 21 世纪在正在准备的组织工程中扮演了一个至关重要的角色,他们的 角色是作为创始者和促进者。

如果这个角色成功执行的话,在工业工程本科教育过程中,改 进是必须的。

Undergraduate education is the foundation for profession practice. Undergraduate program are the basis for entry into graduate school; and other professional fields. To facilitate this transition, urgent improvements are needed in education strategies. Several educators have recognized that the way engineering is practiced has changed dramatically over the year and an upgrade is needed in engineering education. Educators, employers and practitioners are calling for a better integration of science with the concepts of design and practice throughout the engineering curriculum. Such an integration should be a key component of any education reform in preparation for the 21st century. 本科教育是专业实践的基础, 本科教育的课程是进入研究院和其它专业领域的基础。

为了促 进这个转变, 在教育策略方面作以紧迫改进是必须的。

很多教育者已经意识到工程教育实施 的这种方式在很多年中有了很大的变化,并且意识到工程教育中的改善是必要的,教育者、 雇主和从业者提倡用设计和实践的观念, 通过工程课程使其有一个较好的科学的综合。

这种 综合将是为 21 世纪作准备的任何教育改革的一个关键的要素。

Hurried attempts to improve education are being made in many areas. We know have terms like "total quality management for Academia, "just-in-time education," and "continuous education

improvment". Unfortunately, many of these represent mere rhetorics that are not backed by practical implementation models. IE should take the lead in reforming its own curriculum so that it can help to developed practical implementation models that can be used by other disciplines. Many educators and administrators are searching for ways to transform improvement rhetorics and slogans into action. Models developed by IEs can provide the answers. 许多地方在尝试着快速改进教育,在学术界,我们已经有了像学院全面质量管理,准时制以 及持续的教育改革等专业术语。

遗憾的是,很多这样的词汇仅仅是口号,而没有以可行的实 践为基础, 工业工程应该率先改革其自身专业, 这样就有助于产生出可以运用在其他学科的 可行性的实践模式, 很多教育学家和管理者正在寻求能把理论和标语运用于实际的办法, 经 由工业工程师发展的模式将会提供答案.Quality in IE education Incorporation quality concepts into education is a goal that should be pursued at national, state, local and institution levels. Existing models of total quality management (TQM) and continuous process improvement (CPI) can be adopted for curriculum improvement. However, because of the unique nature of academia. re-definition of TQM will be necessary so that the approach will be compatible with the academic process. For example, in industry, the idea of zero defects makes sense. But in academia, we cannot proclaim zero defects in our graduates since their success on the job cannot be guaranteed. Nonetheless, the basic concepts of improving product quality are applicable to improving any education process. Clynes, while reflection on discussions he participated in at a National Research Council colloquium on engineering education, said "Teaching quality, like a company‟s customer service, can never be too good and always needs attention for improvement". This is true. A careful review of IE curriculum will reveal areas for improvement. This will help avoid stale curricula that may not meet the current needs of the society. 工业工程教育的质量 将质量理念融入到教育之中是民族,国家,地区甚至是协会标准的追求目标,现有的全面质 量管理和持续程序改进模式可以纳入课程改革。

但是,由于学术界的独特性,重新定义全面 质量是必要的,这与理论的进程是一致的。

例如,在工业上,零缺陷很有意义,所以在学术 界我们就不能宣称零缺陷,由于毕业生在工作方面的成功不能得到保证。

不过,提高产品质 量的基本理念同样适用于任何教育过程。

Clynes 在参加国家工程教育学术讨论会时, 经仔细 考虑说, “教育本质就像公司对消费者的服务一样, 不可能达到最好,需要不断的改进。

” 的确,仔细回顾工业工程课程能够发现需要改进的地方,这就有助于避免过时的,不能应用 于当今社会要求的课程。

Theory and practice

Teaching determines the crux of research while research determines the crux of teaching. Integration of teaching and research is required for effective professional practice. The need to incorporate some aspect of practice into engineering education has been addressed widely in the literature. Pritsker recommends that professors must combine research interests with teaching responsibilities. The declining state of university education was described by Samuelson with respect to waste, lax academic standards and mediocre teaching and scholarship. These specific problems have been cited in the literature. l Increasing undergraduate attrition despite falling academic standards at many schools. Decreasing teaching loads in favor of increasing dedication to research; l Migration of full professors from undergraduate teaching in favor of graduate teaching and research; l undergraduate courses in the attempt to achieve retention goals; l undergraduate courses to real world practice. 理论和实践 教学决定着科研的核心,同时,科研也反过来影响着教学。

有效的专业实践要求教学和科研 的融合。

很多文献中也提出要将时间的一些方法融入到工程教育中去。

Pritsker 认为教授们 必须把科研兴趣和教学责任心相结合起来。

Samuelson 曾经描述过关于浪费,不精确的学术 标准, 平庸的教学方法和奖学金等大学教育的衰退现象, 这些特殊的问题早已在文献中被引 证。

l 尽管许多高校已降低学术标准, 本科生的人数还是不断减少,减少教学负担以便增加科学贡献。

l 的教授以便研究生的教学和科研。

l 到既定的目标。

l 程。

从本科生教学中迁移了几乎所有 Watered down contents ofDecreasing relevance of消减本科学生的课程内容以图达减少本科生有关的实习实践课

Curriculum Integration Curriculum integration (interdisciplinary approach) should be used to address the problems cited above. Curriculum integration should be a priority in reforming education programs. Students must understand the way the world around them works and be capable of becoming responsible contributors to the society. Interdisciplinary education offers a more holistic approach to achieving this goal. Interdisciplinary course and curriculum improvement should link separate but related subjects to provide students with comprehensive skills so they can adapt to the changing world. One form of interdisciplinary integration involves projects in which students from more than one academic department participate in join industrial projects. This facilitates sharing of views from different angles. 课程融合 课程融合应该着眼于解决以上提出的这些问题。

学科融合应该是在教育改革计划中有优先权 的。

学生们必须了解他们周围世界是怎样的,并且有能力成为一个对社会有贡献的人。

跨学 科教育为达到这一目的提供了更全面的方法。

交叉学科和课程改进应该把那些虽然不同但是 有关的课题联系起来, 以便为学生提供广泛的技能使他们能够适应变化的社会。

跨学科的融 合的形式应包含来自于多个学院参加工程项目的学生,这会有利于从不同的角度看问题。

Role of the IE Enhanced IE education will prepare students to lead efforts to integrate entities in manufacturing and service organization of the 21st century. The IE profession, as a whole, faces an important challenge in educating future IEs for this leadership role. The current IE curriculum provides good exposure to its many unique facets. Individual courses at both undergraduate and graduate levels in many institutions are comprehensive. Yet there are some fundamental deficiencies as discussed below. 工业工程的角色 日益提高的工业工程教育将为学生准备好为 21 世纪制造业和服务业集成实体而努力。

总的 来说,在培养 IE 领导角色方面,IE 教育将面对很大的挑战。

当前 IE 课程显示了他很多独 特的方面。

在许多学校本科和研究生的课程是全面的。

但是还有一些根本的不足之处有待于 讨论。

The academic curriculum rarely emphasizes the fundamental philosophy of IE itself. That philosophy is a holistic approach to design, development and implementation of integrated systems of men, machines and materials. Students go through courses in operations research, manufacturing, human factors and so on without understanding the interrelationships between

these areas and the synergistic impact this integrated approach has on man-machine systems. 在学院课程中很少强调 IE 自身的哲学体系。

其哲学体系是关于人,机,物料集成体系的整 体设计、发展和执行。

学生学习了运筹学,机械设计,人因学等课程,但是并没有深入理解 这些领域在人机体系中集成方法的内在联系以及相互影响。

IE is quickly losing its identity as a value-adding profession. The basic cause of this problem is that many IEs graduate without resolving the question of identity related to the following questions: ·What separates an IE from other engineers? ·What contribution does the profession make to an organization? IE 正很快的失去它增值的特征。

导致这种问题的根本原因是许多 IE 毕业生没有解决以下的 问题: ·IE 师与其他领域的工程师的区别是什么? ·这个专业对企业有何贡献?The root of this identity problem lies in the structured and isolated approach of various IE courses. This results in specialization that is too narrow. For example, graduates today tend to associate more with focused professional societies rather than the general IE. This is a disturbing drift that may destroy the identity of IE as we now know it. 这些问题的根源是由于各种 IE 课程结构的和孤立的方法。

这导致了专业研究上的狭隘。

例 如,现在的毕业生倾向于更多地密集的专业社会领域而不是基础 IE,这种使人不安的偏离 现象,可能会毁掉原来我们所知的 IE 特征.There is a big difference between academic and industrial approaches to performance evaluation. The academic community evaluates its members by the number of publications and research grants. By contrast, industry measures performance in terms of real contributions to organizational goals. This has a detrimental effect on the learning interaction that faculty and students must share for students to graduate with professional loyalty, technical competence and capability of integrating theoretical concepts and industrial practice effectively. 在表现评价中,理论和工业生产之间有很大的差异。

在理论界,价值的评估是通过发表成果

的数量和获得研究经费的数目来实现的。

与之相比, 工业绩效评估是对组织目标的实际贡献 为指标。

这对学习中的交互能力产生不利的影响。

学生必须在具备职业的忠诚,技术能力, 综合的理论认识以及有效的实践能力下毕业。

In the attempt to prepare students for graduate level education, the academic curriculum often has a strong mathematic orientation. Though a required approach, it develops a very structured approach to problem solving among students. Consequently, students expect all problems to have well-defined inputs, processing modules and outputs. Thus, when faced with complex, ill-defined, and unstructured problems that are common in the real world, many new graduates perform poorly. Chisman points out that the bulk of teaching should be done for undergraduate students since over 85 percent of them go into industry, not on to graduate school. Unfortunately, attempts to improve curriculum is often silted in favor of research-oriented education, thereby depriving the majority of the students of the skills they need to survive in the business world. 对为研究生水平做准备的学生来说, 学术课程通常带有强烈的数学的倾向性。

虽然这是必需 的途径,但是为了让学生使问题得以解决,它发展成为一种程式化的方法。

因此,学生期望 所有的问题都有明确的输入,处理模块和输出。

因此,当面对现实世界中那些复杂的,不清 楚的,无组织的问题时,许多刚毕业的大学生表现的并不是很好。

Chisman 指出,由于超过 85%的毕业生进入企业而不是他们毕业的学校,大部分的教学应该针对这些本科学生进行。

不幸的是, 尝试有利于教育导向的改进课程更倾向于促进科研的教育, 从而就剥夺了大多数 学生在商业世界里生存所需要的技能。

Many young graduates mistakenly perceive their expected roles as being part of the management personnel, having little or no direct association with shop-floor activities. Such views impede hand-on experience and prevent the identification of root causes of industrial problems. Consequently, this leads to the development of solutions that are short-term, unrealistic, and/or inadequate. The growing reliance of simulation models that cannot be practically validated in real-world settings is one obvious symptom of this problem. 许多年轻的毕业生错误地把他们未来的角色看作是管理人员, 很少或者根本没有把自己与车 间活动联系在一起。

这种观点阻碍了他们传承实践经验, 并且妨碍了他们对工程问题出现的 根本原因的发现。

因此,这就使得他们解决问题的方法是短期的,不切实际的或不充分的。

越来越依赖在现实环境中不能切实有效运用的仿真模型就是这一现象的体现。

Like many other engineering curricula, IE is growing within an isolated shell. Students do not realize the importance of developing solutions beneficial to a system rather than for individual components. Many new graduates take a long time to become productive in developing solutions that require multidisciplinary approaches.

像其他的工程课程一样, 工业工程是在一个封闭空间内发展的。

学生们没有意识到与其致力 于对系统组成部分的研究, 不如致力于发展对系统有益的解决问题的方法更有意义。

许多新 的毕业生要花费很长时间才能变得善于提出运用综合方法的发展性的解决方案。

工业工程专业英语翻译(3)工业工程专业英语翻译 2008-04-26 19:15:06 阅读 1753 评论 3 字号:大中小Real IE Value 工业工程的真正价值 Industrial engineers are great at solving problems. Ironically enough, there is still one age-old problem they unable to solve-identity. And the problem is not getting any to solve. In fact,“ identity” is just one of several challenges currently facing the IE profession. 工业工程师非常善于解决问题。

可是具有讽刺性的却是他们仍有一个长期性的问题得不到解 决----一致性。

而且这个问题解决起来一直很困难。

事实上, “一致性”恰好是目前工业工程 领域所面临的众多挑战性问题之一。

Today‟s competitive global economy and tighter corporate budgets are forcing IEs to deal with issues that were barely mentioned a decade ago. Companies are flattening corporate structures; IE departments are being eliminated or renamed; and universities and colleges are under even greater pressure to provide industry with graduates who are better trained to handle a much wider variety of job responsibilities. 今天激烈的世界竞争和紧张的公司预算都迫使工业工程师们去解决被人们忽视很久的问题。

公司开始重新组合团队结构; 工业工程部被逐渐被取消或者重新命名; 而且大学和学院也承 担着向工业界提供被更好的培训而掌握了更广泛工作能力的毕业生的压力。

On the other hand, today‟s IE has at his or her disposal more technology and tools than the IE of 30 years ago could have ever imagined. New technologies have improved accuracy and speed and generally have increased the IE‟s ability to cover a more diverse set of interests. 另一方面,现在的工业工程师可以使用许多他们 30 年前的同行想都想不到的技术和工具。

新技术已经提高了精确度和速度并逐渐提高了工业工程师们解决更多样问题的能力。

In addition, the IE now has a greater opportunity to concentrate on any one of a broad variety of areas that many companies now recognize as individual departments-including simulation, operations research, ergonomics, material handling and logistics.

值得一提的是, 工业工程现在有更多的机会去集中于现在许多企业已经视为独立的学科的众 多领域中的一个-----包括防真学、运筹学、人因学、物料搬运和物流学。

The name game 命名问题 What problems could possibly throw a shadow on such a bright array of opportunities? For starters, as new opportunities have developed for the IE, new questions have formed about what types of jobs the industrial engineer is qualified to perform. 什么问题可能会在如此明亮的机会阵列上投下阴影呢?对于初学者来说, 随着工业工程新的 机遇的产生,诸如工业工程师到底能胜任什么样的工作问题也随之产生。

At one time, it was easier to define what an IE did .” Industrial engineering was simple in those days when we dealt with methods, work standards and work simplification,” says Carlos Cherubin, director of engineering for The Limited Co. “But there has to be some way to get past the old industrial engineering definition.” 曾经,定义工业工程是很容易的。

“工业工程那时候在解决问题,制订工作标准和工作简明 化方面很简单”有限公司的经理卡罗.彻罗宾如是说。

“但是现在需要放弃那些落后的工业工 程定义了。

” Even today, in many companies, IEs are still performing type of work that makes up what is now considered classical IE.” “The big change is that the commercialization of a lot of these areas have turned them into „niche thrusts,‟” says John Powers, director of the management service department at Eastman Kodak Co. While IEs have always been very adaptable to these “thrusts” as a skill set, he says ,they are now competing for the headlines. 甚至现在,在许多公司,工业工程仍然在从事那些现在看来是经典工业工程的传统的工作。

“埃斯曼.柯达公司的人力资源部经理约翰帕娃说: “最大的变化就是工业工程领域的商业化 使它们成为具有竞争性的舒适职业。

”而且,工业工程师已经适应了这种竞争技能。

他们现 在正在争取这份工作。

Says Jerry Zollenberg, director of IE for United Parcel Service, “If a person loses slight of the total job and stars looking at the individual pieces, it comes out a little hairy.” For example, Zollenberg says that he has an operations research(OR) group of 40 to 50 individual who are working on the cutting edge of computer technology. At one time these people were designated as IEs. But Zollenberg says that even through they are not called IEs, the job they are doing is certainly IE-oriented and could be IE, depending on how you set up the organization. 联合包装服务公司的工业工程经理杰瑞说: “如果一个人不能对整项工作做全面把握而只是 将注意力放在个别的方面,那么结果就不会令人满意。

”例如,诺龙博格博士说他公司有一

个由 40 到 50 个人组成的专门从事计算机尖端技术的研究小组, 这些人曾被称做工业工程师, 但是,即使他们没被予以这种头衔,他们所做的还是工业工程的工作可以被称做工业工程, 这取决于你如何组织这个团队。

Like it or not, the trend today is specialization, and companies are following suit. Tough economic times are forcing many companies to redefine corporate structures, with a primary goal of flatting their organization in an attempt to cut costs and speed the decision-making process. In the case of the IE department, that trend has moved departmental names from the generic “IE” to special functions or areas that are being performed. Former IE departments have been decentralized or renamed and are now described using such terms as Quality Improvement Engineering, Management Service or Engineering Service, just to name a few. 不管是否真的这样,专业化是目前的趋势就,而且企业也在向这个方向发展。

许多企业在这 个经济时代的要求下都在重组公司结构, 以期能够是组织有效能, 可以节约开支并加快决策 的进度。

而在工业工程部门, 专业化的趋势是工业工程不在是普通的工业工程而是具有专业 的作用或者是个正在改善的行业。

从前的工业工程部已经被分解或者重新命名。

现在他们已 经部分成为质量改善工程,质量服务或者工程服务,仅是名字多一点。

“What I see is companies getting away from the IE name and trying to have names that are more descriptive of the broader set of skills,” says Powers. 帕娃说: “我所看到的就是企业都在减少使用工业工程这个名字而在尝试使用些更新的描述 这些技能的名字。

” For many, including Rebecca Ray, IE manager at Glaxo Inc., it is a step in the right direction. Her department will soon carry the title Performance Improvement Engineering.” IE is probably the only engineering profession that insists on wearing its degree on its departmental door,” she says. “we have focused too much on maintaining our degree, instead of identifying our function within our company.” 许多人,包括格莱斯公司的工业工程经理瑞贝卡瑞都认为,这是正确方向上的一步。

而且她 的部门也要命名为绩效改善工程了。

她还说: “工业工程可能是工程专业仅有的坚持要求把 自己的地位建立在本部门之上的专业” 我们已经过多的注重维护我们的地位而忽略了我们 。

“ 对公司所起的作用。

” Dr. Vinod Sahney, corporate vice president at Henry Ford health Syste engineering department,” he says, “I have never seen a mechanical engineering department. “One of our biggest difficulties is we equate industrial engineering department, but they are hired and get a wide-range of jobs.” 亨利福得保健设备公司的副主席文纳德.沙尼博士也同意她的观点.他说:” 我从未发现有机械 工程部,我们最大的困难就是平等看待工业工程部门,但机械工程专业的人却有很多就业机会 且就业范围广泛.” Tony Vieth, IE manager at Boeing Georgia Inc., believes that the individual person, depending on

how they are trained, can bring the rights skills to the right job and they do not need to be in a department called industrial engineering. He also thinks IEs have gotten hung up on what over the years. On the other hand, the decentralized type of environment appears more threatening to others. “If we assume that decentralized will continue to the point of transferring IE responsibilities to others, as seen in the Volvo organization, we will see a profound impact upon the profession, namely unemployment,” predicts Donald Barnes of Barnes Management Training Services. 佐治亚的波音公司的工业工程经理托尼.万斯认为一个人的工作决定于他所学习的技能使他 所学有所用而不是取决于他在哪个部门工作.而且他认为工业工程师已经为这个问题困扰了 许多年.而巴勒斯管理培训服务公司的唐纳德.巴勒斯却持有相反意见.他说:” 如果这种分解继 续的话,工业工程的职责就会改变.就象我们在沃而沃公司看到的一样,我们就会到这种影响 将会造成这个行业的失业. But, a centralized IE department does not guarantee employment for the industrial engineer. Many large companies have “IE” departments where only a handful of industrial engineers can be found. An example is Boeing. Boeing has some very large IE departments, but often less than two or three people within the department have IE degrees. According to Vieth, it is because some of the functions within the department are so diverse. 但是,对于工业工程部的整合也并不会给工业工程师带来工作.许多大企业的工业工程部里仅 有少量的工业工程师.拿波音公司做个例子,波音公司有一些大的工业工程部,但是其中只有 2 个或三个人有工业工程学位.通过万斯来看,那是因为部门里的某些函数太多样了. Problems associated with renaming IE departments to describe their particular function may have more to do with appearance than with the actual job being performed. While IEs actually perform many of the specialized jobs, little credit is given to IE principles used in the approach. In fact, it often turns out that many of the individual functions and skills used by IEs are viewed by management as industrial engineering. As a result, individuals who can master one of those skills are mistakenly referred to by management as “industrial engineers.” 将工业工程部重新命名以明确描述其具体职能,其间所出现的问题与其说与实际完成的工作 有关倒不如说与问题的表象有关.工业工程师们在完成许多专业性工作的过程中的工作原则 极少得到承认.实际上,工业工程师们的个体作用和技能通常被管理学认为是工业工程学.结 果,拥有这些技能中的某一项的人被错误的认为是”工业工程师” Yet, those who understand the real value of industrial engineering still realize that the degreed IE brings to the job a unique way of thinking. 然而,那些懂得工业工程的真正价值的人依然意识到工业工程这个专业给了这份工作一 个与众不同的思考途径. “There are things you can teach non-degreed people that are basic repetitive tasks,” says Vieth. “But what you can‟t teach is how to take what you see, translate it and recognize there is a problem, and then come up with a solution to that problem.”

万斯说:”你可以教一个没有专业基础的人一些基本重要的工作,但是你却不能教他们如 何了解和转化看到的问题并找出方法去解决这个问题. Erin Wallace, director of IE at Walt Disney World Co., would not hire anyone who was not a degreed IE. “I insist on it,” she says. “When you‟ve got a group of people who are distinctly IEs, they carry with them what we like to refer to as distinct competencies. Those distinct competencies for an IE at Walt Disney World include their ability to do quantitative analysis. You need an IE degree to be able to do that type of work.” 任职于华特.迪斯尼世界公司的工业工程部经理爱瑞.沃仑斯从部雇用非工业工程专业 的人.她说:” 我坚持这样做是因为如果你雇用了一批专业的工业工程人士,那么他们具备我们 需要的独特的能力.在华特.迪斯尼,这种独特的能力包括他们做质量分析的能力.你需要一个 工业工程的毕业生从事这种工作.” Wallace says that when someone hires IE technology-type majors, they do not get some of the rudimentary problem solving skills acquired from taking engineering courses. 沃仑斯说当雇用工业工程技术类型的专业人员时,他们就不需要通过参加工业工程课 程来获得解决基本技术问题所要的技能了. Curriculum 课程 Since there is a favorable consensus about the technical qualification of degreed IEs, universities and colleges must be doing all industry believes is necessary to prepare today‟s IE students. Appearances may be deceiving. 既然对于工业工程师必须具有技术素质已经成为共识,那么大学和学院必须使工业界 相信提供现代的工业工程毕业生是很必要的.表面现象通常是不可信的.In fact, even though ABET accredits many IE and IET programs in the United States, there remains much variance and flexibility among each of the programs. Evidence of the fact can be found in a recent Australian study undertaken by the Industrial Engineering/Management (IE/M) group of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Swinburne Institute of Technology (SIT). 事实上,尽管工业工程与技术鉴定委员会鉴定了美国的许多工业工程与工业工程技术 项目,但这些项目之间仍然存在很大的区别和灵活性.事实的根据可以从最近澳大利亚机械和 制造工业学校的工业工程管理小组的研究中得到证实.该学校隶属于机械和制造工程技术小 组.

The school initiated a set of promotional activities to rejuvenate the industrial engineering name and status. One of the school‟s goals was to help convince managers and government to reconsider the role of industrial engineering. 学校开始行动起来改变工业工程学的名字和地位.学校的目标之一就是帮助管理人员和 政府重新评估工业工程学的价值. In preparation for the events, the IE / M group surveyed more than 150 U.S. universities with accredited IE programs at the undergraduate and graduate level. Of those universities that answered <37 were randomly drawn for analysis. 在研究的准备过程中,工业工程管理小组检查了 150 多所在本科阶段有资格教授工程课 程的学校并在其中随机抽出 37 所来进行分析. The main purpose was to analyze the quantity and quality of the IE subjects. According to Shayan and Hamadani at SIT, the most important point is that coverage of IE is not yet standardized. 这样的主要目的是分析工业工程课程的数量和质量.对于 SIT 的沙扬和哈姆丹尼来说,最 重要的一点是工业工程的范围没有标准限制. Other steps 其他阶段 Two key projects currently working toward helping academia improve the overall IE curriculum include the Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education (SUCCEED) sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NFS), and IIE‟s joint effort between the Council on Industrial Engineering (CIE ) and the Council of Industrial Engineering Academic Department Heads (CIEADH). 当前两个主要的项目目的在于全面提高由美国自然科学基金委员会负责的,包括东南大 学和学院工程教育联合会以及由工业工程理事会和工业工程学术部门组成的工业工程师学 会的学术水平. SUCCEED, which is aimed at all engineering disciplines, is an engineering education coalition established by NSF in March 1992. The coalition has proposed a new curriculum model, CURRICULUM 2 1, as a mechanism to focus its efforts on specific goals such as restructuring the engineering curriculum and improving the quality and quantity of graduates. 在 1992 年 3 月由美国自然科学基金委员会资助的东南大学和学院工程联合会,旨在提高工 程类本科教育的水平.这个联合会开创了一个新的学科模式,课程 2 1,目标主要集中在诸如调 整课程和提高毕业生的数量和质量方面.

The second project, between CIE and CIEADH, has been ongoing since the Fall of 1990. Specifically, CIE (corporate-level directors whose span of control includes IE functions) meets with CIEADH (98 academic department heads from universities and colleges) at scheduled times during the year to better define what industry needs from academia. IIE acts as a facilitator between the two groups to help inform academia. The ultimate goal of these meetings is the development of a clearly defined set of output characteristics that will help academia design an improved undergraduate IE curriculum. 第二个项目开始于 1990 年秋.由工业工程理事会和工业工程系统理事会进行.工业工程理 事会(负责公司工业工程事业的公司领导)还特别的与工业工程系统理事会(大学和学院的 98 位学科代表)进行了例行会晤.目的是更好的限定工业在学术方面的需要范围.工业工程学会 从中协助这两个组织通知学术界.这些会议的最终结果是产生了一系列有特色的概念,从而帮 助学术界设计先进的本科工业工程课程.This is not to say that these organizations are attempting to standardize the IE curriculum, rather, they are trying to provide basic guidelines. The question of whether the IE curriculum, should be standardized throughout every university is not an issue. Leaders in industry and academia readily agree that there is no possible way for every curriculum at every college to be identical. 这并不是说这些组织试图标准化工业工程的课程,而是说他们正努力提供一些基本的准 则.主要的并不是工业工程课程是否应该在所有的大学里统一标准,而是工业界和学术界的领 导人已开始认同不可能在每个学校开设一样的课程. “I don‟t think you can require every IE curriculum to be cookie cutter of each other,” says Glaxo‟s Ray. 克拉克.瑞说:”我不认为工业工程课程能象饼干一样被分来分去.” What appears to be a problem is the perceived gap between what types of students academia is providing compared with the types of students industry seeks. Most industry leaders acknowledge that the majority of universities and colleges should provide, and do provide, students who are technically competent .To expect that IE students be highly knowledgeable about every possible aspect of industrial engineering upon graduation may be unrealistic, says Zollenberg. Students are required to take a broad range of IE course to help them understand the principles of IE and provide a solid academic foundation. A graduate student can then go on to specialize in a particular area if he or she desire to do so. 出现的问题是所提供的专业学生类型和工业界所需要人才之间的理解误差.大多数工业 界领导人都承认大中专院校提供的学生还是具有技术能力的.佐仑.贝格说,希望工业工程专 业的学生通晓工业工程的各个方面是不现实的.学生只需要学习在校期间工程的科目,足以帮 他们了解工业工程的准则和固定的基础学术知识就可以了.这样的毕业生就能按自己的设想 在特定的领域使自己的知识专业化

Zollenberg insists that it is impossible to learn everything they need to know about the jobs they will encounter. “I‟m not sure anybody coming out is going to learn all of the required skills in four years of school. I don‟t think it‟s fair to the universities and I don‟t I don‟t think it‟s fair to the kids,” he says. 佐仑.贝格认为期望让学生在学校学到将来在工作中遇到的所有问题拿几乎使不可能的. 他说:”我不确定任何人可以在 4 年学生生涯中学到所需要的所有技能.我想这样对学校和孩 子都是不公平的. Expectations 期望值 What industry leaders to expect, however, are students who have the ability to operate in the environment in which they are placed. These areas where there appears to be a deficiency include interpersonal skills, knowledge of computers, nontechnical/business skills, quality management skills, and an appreciation for the plant floor. Depending upon what industry the new graduate is placed, the need for certain skills will vary. 工业领导人所期望的使学生有能力在他们所处的环境中进行操作.这些有缺陷的领域包 括交际能力,计算机知识,商业技能,质量管理技能和尊重高层领导人员.对于不同岗位的毕业 生有不同的要求,所以对于技能的要求也是不同的. Wallace, who works for a service-oriented company (Walt Disney World), thinks today‟s students are well-trained in most areas, with the exception of computer shills. She says she still sees a lot of students who came out of school without very good computer skills. “Nowadays, that should be a prerequisite.” 工作于服务性公司的瓦拉斯认为如今的学生在许多领域都接受了很好的培养.他们具有 所需的计算机技能,她说她仍然看到许多毕业生不具备很好的计算机技能,” 今天,这个技能是 必要的.” In the manufacturing sector, Jack Broadway, director of corporate IE for Reynolds Metals, believes today‟s students are probably better educated than in the past, but they have some misconception about the types of jobs they will perform. “A lot of (students) coming out today want to sit behind a computer and they think that is their job. Well, a computer is just another tool. It‟s just something you use to do something else,” he says. He suggests that on-the job training while in school may be one of the best ways to prepare students. 在瑞纳德金属公司从事制造性工业工程的杰克.布朗德利认为现在的学生比过去的学生 教育的好,但是他们对于将从事的工作却有一些错误的概念.他说:” 许多学生认为坐在电脑前

就是他们的工作.可是,电脑只是一个工具,这个工具只是协助你去工作.然后你还是要做其它 或者继续你的工作.”他认为学校的在职教育是一个很好的教育学生的方法. On healthcare side, Sahney (Henry Ford Health Systems) thinks that in general terms, schools are providing properly trained students, but they often are not given the opportunity to become well-rounded in other areas. Because what he says is the profession’s “roots of accreditation,” the curriculum is too tightly controlled. He does not think individual institutions have enough variety. In other words, he says, the electives are very limited by the time all of the required courses are finished. This problem is often exhibit as a lack of writing and presentation skills in many of the new graduates. 萨尼从全面教育方面考虑认为学校在学习期间给了学生适当的教育,却没有给学生在其 它领域接受全面教育的机会.学校认为专业课才是工作资格的根本.所以课程安排被严格的控 制着.而不认为人的学问是多样化的.或换句话说,他们认为在所有所需要的课程结束后,竞争 就会减小,这样做的结果就是许多毕业生明显缺少写作和自我表达的能力. Most IEs eventually must sell their ideas and plans to management, which often requires above-average communication skills. For many IE graduates, this is a tough challenge. Russell Cartmill, IE director at The Coca-Cola Co., says he is frequently confronted with hiring recent graduates who lack basic communication skills. He says Coca-Cola ends up having to teach people things once they get in the areas of public speaking and report writing, “some of the basic things that you really need to have in industry in order to make a good presentation.” 其它许多工业工程师都使用多门交流技巧,要推销自己的想法和计划给管理部门.可这对 于工业工程的毕业生来说是个很大的挑战.在可口可乐公司工作的工业工程经理如瑟.卡特米 说,他经常碰到新录用的缺少交流技巧的毕业生,可口可乐公司只有在职员学会公共演讲和起 草报告的时候才停止教育他们.他说在工业界你真正需要的一些基本的东西就是怎样去很好 的展示自己. One way schools are combating this problem, which is also a problem with students in other engineering disciplines, is semester-long undergraduate and graduate-level courses directed at familiarizing engineering students from all disciplines with the non-technical aspects of engineering. These courses focus on topics such as financial management, project management, business planning and business development. 学校解决这个其它工程学也存在的问题的方法就是在学习中设置一些非技术方面的学科, 但这些学科集中在商务管理,工程管理,经济计划和经济发展. Other schools have even gone as far as offering graduate degrees that are a combination of an IE degree and business degree in an attempt to target students seeking manufacturing engineering jobs. 个别学校还甚至同时授予工业工程学位和经济学位以期使学生找到制造工程方面的工 作.

But Vieth is not the business route is the best path for the industrial engineering curriculum to follow. “I think if we lose track of the technical knowledge, we‟re just going to look like a high-priced business graduate,” he says. 但是,万斯却不认为工业工程课程跟随商业路线是最好的途径.他说:’我认为如果我们没 有学到技术知识,最多我们看起来是一个有用的经济人才.” Another option IE departments at universities and colleges might consider is specializing in a particular function of IE (i.e. operations research, material handling, ergonomics, human factors, etc.), and market their program accordingly. For example, says Cherubin, if a college student wants to be an IE and has a particular interest in material handling, that student should be able to choose certain schools whose charter is very specific. In addition to helping the student, he says, it provides an important service to a potential employer. “Don‟t put students out in the work environment and, at that point, let them start defining their career,” says Cherubin. 另一个工业工程专业要考虑的是使工业工程的作用专业化(例如,运筹学,物料搬运,人因学, 人力因素等)并且让他们的作用市场化.例如,象彻如宾所说的,如果一个学生对物料搬运有兴 趣并想成为工业工程师,他就需要选择一个非常专业的学校去学习.这样对于学生的就业就有 很大的帮助.并且他说:”不要让学生远离工作环境,而是让他们以开始就决定自己的职业.”Vieth has similar views. “Maybe the IEs that our universities train today should be trained to be part of a specific department,” he says. 万斯有相似的观点,他说:”或许大学造就的工业工程师们就应该训练成为专业部门的一份 子.” Ray thinks that the problem might not be what is taught, but the way it is taught. IE classes and departments at universities are structured in a way that teaches students to work alone, she says. 瑞认为问题也许不是教授什么学科而是用什么方法去教,她说:”大学里的工业工程课程 应该教学生独自去作业.” Students model themselves after the people they admire, Ray states. “While student are in college, they are looking at their professors. If they see their professors operating autonomously--- on their own island --- and not interrelating across other disciplines, the IE is going to come out of that program thinking they don‟t need anybody‟s help to solve a problem, “ she says. 瑞强调说:”学生总是模仿他们所崇拜的人,在大学里,如果学生看到他们的教授在他们的 领域独立操作而不涉及其它学科,这些学生就会觉得他们不需要别人的帮助就能解决问题.” She says it takes her up to 18 months to put a newly hired graduate through “boot camp” to make

them realize that they have to work as a member of a team to facilitate the flow of information within her organization. 她说她用了 18 个月的时间去培训新雇用的毕业生,使他们了解到在她的组织中每个人都是 团队中的一份子,这样才有助于信息的畅通无阻. Future directions 未来方向 With all of these challenges facing the IE profession, there may be some who doubt the IEs‟ future. But if the individual IE will assume the role as a change implementer --- not a change follower --broad opportunities are on the horizon. 工业工程行业所面临的这些挑战会使一些人担心工业工程师的前途,然而,如果每个工业 工程师都承担起变化的实施者而不是变化的追随者的角色,则广泛的机会就会出现.Some see a renewed interest in traditional IE functions, specifically, cost estimation and analysis. E. Rranklin Livingston, senior industrial engineer at Weber USA Inc. , a manufacturer of carburetors and fuel injectors cites a recent request from General Motor‟s vice president of world-wide purchasing, J. Ignacio Lopez de Amortua, as proof. “he is expecting drastic cost reductions from suppliers over the next five years, “ says Livingston. 有人发现传统的工业工程中的价值也在更新,但是需要分析和评估.美国沃博公司的高级 工程师 E.富兰克林.莱温斯顿作为一个汽化器和加油器的制造师应用通用汽车世界收购公司 副总裁 J.纳西欧.罗伯茨的话说:”他希望未来的 5 年中将大幅度削减购买所需的资金.” Livingston points out that Chrysler and Ford will probably follow suit and make similar demands on their suppliers. If that is true, Livingston foresees in the next 10 years that probably more emphasis will be placed on conventional industrial engineering. “but I don‟t think it will ever go back to the way it was 25 years ago, “ Livingston says. 利温斯顿指出格瑞斯勒和伏特也将这样做。

并对供应商提出相同的要求。

如果真是这样 的话,利温斯顿预言在未来的 10 年有可能重点放在如何使工业工程更便利上。

他说: “我不 认为它会象 25 年前那样实施。

Others see the IE heading in the direction of large processes and systems. Process thinking has become widespread in recent years, due largely to the quality movement. Industrial engineers seeking to expand their opportunities and improve the quality of operations are now looking at the entire process, rather than just a particular task or business function.] 有些人认为工业工程在系统和程序中起领头的作用。

由于质量运做使程序化思想在这

几年传播迅猛。

在质量运做中寻求更广机遇和进步的工业工程师们现在关注所有的程序, 而 不仅仅是一个特别的工作或商业作用。

Two areas that may be of special importance to IEs in the coming years include information technology (IT) and business process redesign. As IT continues to evolve, technological advancements will have a big impact on how companies look at business processes of the next decade. Working together, IT and BPR has the potential to create a new type of industrial engineering, changing the way the discipline is practiced and the skills necessary to practice it. 信息技术和业务流程再造这两个领域未来对工业工程师们特别重要。

随着信息技术的 发展, 先进的技术将影响企业在下个世纪的商业进程。

信息技术和业务流程再造的联合操作 有创造一个新型的工业工程的潜力。

它将改变实用的准则和实际操作的技能。

This whole area of business process re-engineering offers a great opportunity that many IEs have been unwilling to explore. As a result, managers have been reluctant to look to the IE to carry the banner, powers says. “ if we‟ve got a problem, it‟s of our own doing and our own unwillingness to take the lead in a lot of these major improvement activities,” he states. 商业过程的重新商业化提供了大量的机会, 但是许多工业工程师却不愿意去研究。

结果, 管理人员一直不愿意去采取方法去制止。

帕沃说: “如果我们遇到了问题,这些问题也是由 于我们自己的所作所为和不愿意在一些重大的改进活动中承担领导角色所造成的。

” On area where IEs have not been so reluctant to get involved is the systems integration arena. If the systems integration function continues to develop at its current rate, this particular role --- that of systems integrator --- will most likely get so sophisticated that it will requite someone with technical knowledge who can look at the bigger picture. “ this is a function for which industrial engineers are uniquely trained,” says Thonmas Hodgson, with the design and manufacturing division at NSF. 有一个领域工业工程师们没有拒绝参与,那就是联合设备领域。

如果联合机器继续以 它目前的效率发展的话,那么这个特殊的角色将可能回报那些有技术和知识又看好它的人。

NSF 的设计制造部门的托马斯.霍其逊说: “这就是工业工程师的特别作用。

” As a result, many of the traditional IE functions could be handled by IE technology individuals, while degreed IEs would serve in the consultant role. In this scenario, IEs could have the responsibility of training others, who would then apply it. 结果,工业工程的技术人员可掌握传统工业工程,而工业工程师将从事咨询工作,更 不用说工业工程师可以培养那些需要这样技术的人了。

However, many of those opportunities in systems integration are already opening up and if IEs do not step up to the current challenge of systems integration, others may step in and take that function from the IE, says Hodgson.

然而,霍其逊说: “联合设备刚刚打开市场,如果工业工程师不能解决联合带来的挑 战,那么别的人将介入并且将缩小工业工程的用途。

“we need to grow in our understanding of the other engineering disciplines so as to better do our job. We need to grow in our capability to make use of the rapidly improving computational capabilities that are available, “ he says. 他说: “我们需要增加对其它工程学科的了解,这样才能更好的做好我们的工作,我 们还要增强运用现有的高速发展的计算机的能力。

” More challenges 更多挑战 Whatever the future holds, the biggest threat to IE may be what people do not know about the profession. In an economy where every company is cutting costs and looking for ways to trim excess “fat,” one might think CEOs and managers would be snatching up every available IE. Instead, many corporate executives and human resource managers are turning to other disciplines to fill jobs ideally suited for IEs. “it‟s really quite silly, since IEs are the people who save you money,: says Wallace. 不管前景如何, 对于工业工程最大的威胁就是人们不了解这个行业。

目前经济要求每 个企业都节约开支并寻找方法减负的情况下,总裁和经理们要努力掌握使用的工业工程知 识。

但是,许多执行总裁和人力资源经理却在学习适合工业工程师的相关学科。

瓦伦斯说: “既然工业工程师事能节约开销的人,那么这样做就很愚蠢。

” Why is this happening? Because IEs need to do a better job of showing management all of their abilities and talents. While TOM and business process reengineering may pose big challenges, the IE‟s broad, fundamental background has provided them with the training and education found in no other profession. Sadly, the specialized tasks that companies are asking individuals from other disciplines to perform are tasks that IEs have always been trained to perform! It is time for IEs to market those abilities accordingly. 为什么会发生这样的事情呢?因为工业工程师需要做一份好的工作以此来向管理部门 显示他们的能力和才华。

然而,TOM 和商业流程再造提出巨大的挑战时,工业工程部却不 具备相关的专业知识。

让人难过的是企业要求人员解决的专业工作正是工业工程师所学的。

现在是让工业工程师推销自己的时候了。

“we have not done a good job of demonstrating and selling ourselves in a way that we truly get recognized for what our mission and our capabilities and our supposed demonstrative performance really is .” says powers.

帕沃说: “我们在展现和推销自我方面做的很不好,其实只有用这种方法我们才能真正 认识到自己的任务、能力和我所想展示的自己真正的作用。

” IEs must take the proactive approach and position themselves as leaders of changes occurring in all sectors of industry. In fact, IEs must create the changes. Says Zollenberg, “I think we have to step up to the front and take a leadership role, rather than just sit back and wait for somebody to ask us to do a study.” 工业工程师们必须采取主动并把自己作为所有工业变化的领导者,事实上也就是实施 者。

周仑.贝格说: “我认为我们有必要作为领导人走在前列,而不是静坐等着别人来要求我 们去工作。

” And what about the identity problem? Rudy Herrmann, president of rotary lift, sums it up well when he says, “the „name game‟ goes away if we can learn how to be effective functional professionals, and be respected and understand all of our contributions.”那么,关于一致性的问题呢?亨瑞曼电梯公司的主席亨瑞曼很好的总结说: “如果我 们知道如何有效的发挥专业作用,并且尊重和明白我们的贡献,那么命名的游戏就会结束。

“The key is “we.” If every industrial engineer, in industry and academia, will work together to tackle these challenges and make other companies and individuals aware of the IE‟s many talents, the age-old identity problem just might be on the brink of fading away. 关键就是“我们” 。

如果每个工业界和学术界的工业工程师都联合起来迎接挑战,并 且让别的企业和个人了解到工业工程师的许多才能, 那么长期困扰我们的一致性的问题将会 不攻自破。

UNIT THREE Operations Research 运筹学Brief history Operations research is relatively young discipline, being organized as a separate professional field of study only since the end of World War II. The Operational Research Society of the Untied Kingdom (ORS), Operations Research Society of America (ORSA), and the Institute of

Management Sciences (TIMS) were found in 1948, 1952 and 1953, respectively. However, the methods and practices of operations research were being applied just prior to the war by British scientists working for the Air Ministry. In fact, two of these scientists are credited with first coining the phrase “operational research”. 简单的历史回顾 运筹学是一门相对比较新的学科。

它是从二战以后才开始作为专业学科而被研究的。

英国 运筹学会,美国运筹学会和管理学会分别成立于 1948,1952 和 1953。

然而,早在二战之前, 英国的科学家就将运筹学的理论和实践应用于空军。

事实上,正是这些科学家中的两位首次 提出了“运筹学”这一名词。

The earliest application of operations research involved improving the early warning system of the RAF‟s Fighter Command. This system was quickly put to the test during the Battle of Britain. Throughout the remainder of the war, the methods of operations research were used by all branches of the British military to improve the results of their operations. As might be expected, the armed forces of the United States began to apply similar techniques soon after Pearl Harbor. 运筹学最早应用是在提高英国皇家空军司令部的预警系统上。

这个系统在英国的战争中很快 被测试。

在整个余下的战争中,运筹学的方法被英国的分支部队用于提高他们的控制结果。

正如期望的那样,在珍珠港事件后,美国军方也开始应用类似的技术。

After WWII, the use of operations research continued in the military and was greatly expanded. In addition, businesses on both sides of the Atlantic began to apply operations research to a broad range of management problems, such as accident prevention, production planning, inventory control, and personnel planning. 二战后,运筹学继续运用在军事方面,并且有极大的拓展,另外,大西洋两岸的商业活动开 始将运筹学应用到管理问题的广阔的领域,例如,事故预防,生产计划编制,存货控制和人 事计划编制。

The first formal university courses and curricula also began to be developed during the immediate postwar period. MIT, Case Institute of Technology (now Case Western Reserve University), and the University of Pennsylvania were among the first universities to offer formal degree programs in the United States in the early fifties. It is interesting to note that similar academic programs did not develop in the United Kingdom until latter, although lectures and courses were offered at a few universities. University programs in operations research in the United States and Canada are located in a wide variety of colleges, schools, and departments, reflecting the field‟s highly

interdisciplinary nature. Programs are found in departments of mathematical science, decision sciences, statistics, industrial engineering, computer science, management science, engineering management, mechanical engineering, and operations research. These departments are located in school or colleges of engineering, business, management, industrial engineering, and applied science. 战后,第一批正规大学课程也开始涌现,并迅速得到发展。

50 年代早期,麻省理工学院, 卡斯技术学院 (现在的卡斯西方储备学院) 和宾夕法尼亚大学是他们之中第一批提供正规的 学位课程的大学。

尽管这些课在少数的大学被设立,有趣的是,在英国尽管有零星的大学也 进行了一些有关运筹学的演讲和课程, 但是直到后来类似的学术课程才在英国得到发展。

在 美国和加拿大,运筹学方面的课程在各种学校、学院和院系中被广泛设置,反映出这个领域 高度融合的性质。

这些课程被设立在材料科学,决策科学,学, 工业工程,计算机科学, 管理科学,工程管理,机械工程和运筹学等院系中。

这些院系隶属工程、商业、管理、工业 工程和应用科学等学校或学院。

Operations research as defined by the Operations Research Society of America, “is concerned with scientifically deciding how to best design and operate man-machine systems, usually under conditions requiring the allocation of scarce resources.” Important to the field is the development, testing, and use of models to predict various outcomes under differing conditions or to optimize the outcome for a given condition. This gives decision makers the ability either to choose the “best” outcome or to enhance the likelihood of a given set of desired outcomes. The application of quantitative methods is also very important. 美国运筹学学会将运筹学定义为: 在需要对紧缺资源进行分配的前提下决定如何最好的设计 和运作人-机系统的决策科学。

这个领域的重点是发展,检测和应用模型去预测在不同条件 下的各种结果,或者优化给定条件下的结果。

决策者应有的能力是:要么选择最优结果,要 么增大一系列给定结果中的好的结果的可能性。

定量方法的应用也是非常重要的。

Some OR accomplishments Some important breakthroughs of the 1970s and 1980s are highlighted below, with description of how they have employed and the resulting economic impact. 运筹学的一些成果 在 20 世纪 70 年代到 80 年代之间取得了一些十分突出的重大突破,下面讲述他们如何被应 用以及其对经济的影响。

Integrative OR accomplishments In 1983 and 1984 , Citgo petroleum corporation , the nation ‟s largest independent refining and marking company ,with 1985 sales in excess of $4 billion, invested in a unique set of comprehensive and integrative systems that combine such OR disciplines as mathematical programming, forecasting, and expert systems, with statistics and organizational theory. Ctigo applied the OR systems to such operations as crude and product acquisition, refining ,supply and distribution ,strategic and operations market planning ,accounts receivable and payable, inventory control ,and setting individual performance objectives ,and now credits these OR systems with turning a 1984 operating loss that exceeded $5 million into a 1985 operating profit in excess of $7 million . 综合的运筹学成果 在 1983 和 1984 年,全美最大的石油独立冶炼和销售公司--citgo 石油公司,将 1985 年超过 4 亿的销售额投资在一个独一无二的全面集成系统中,这个系统将运筹学的数学规划、预测 及专家系统结合到了和组织理论中。

Citgo 将运筹学系统应用到诸如:天然物资的产品 开采, 冶炼, 供应和配送, 运作市场规划, 应收应付款, 存货控制和制定个人执行目标, Citgo 公司由 1984 年 5000 万的营业损失变为到 1985 年高达 7000 万的营业利润要归功于这个运筹 学系统。

Optimization Optimization—determining how to get an objective function or performance index to its maximum within the limits of available resources and technology—is a fundamental goal of decision making and, moreover, an important tool in engineering design. For more than three decades, research in optimization—a considerable fraction of which has been funded by the STOR program of NSF—has been active and fruitful, with payoffs accumulating through a multitude of application. 最优化 最优化—决定如何得到一个目标函数或性能指标以使得在有限的资源和技术有限的条件下 达到它的最大值—是决策的基本目标,并且除此之外,它还是在工程设计方面重要的工具。

三十多年来,最优化方面的研究—它的很多方面的研究已经被 NSF 的 STOR 计划资助—已 经通过大量的实践积累产生了作用并取得累累硕果。

Linear programming is widely used throughout the world. Optimization also involves techniques for solving large-scale, discrete, nonlinear, multiobjective, and global problems. Some recent advances in the filed have such great potential that they have been cited prominently in popular publications, including the NEWYORK Times and the Wall Street Journal. Moreover, optimization is in a new stage of proliferation because its techniques are now accessible to microcomputers. Since optimization has achieved a degree of maturity, it is natural to take a hard look at what can be expected from further research. 线性规划在全世界范围内被广泛应用。

最优化也包括解决大规模,离散,非线性,多目标和 全球化问题的技术。

在这个领域最近的一些探索有如此大的潜力以至于它们已经被一些受欢 迎的出版物大力宣传,其中包括《纽约时报》和《华尔街日报》 。

此外,因为现在最优化的 技术可通过微机来实现, 所以它正处在一个快速发展的新时期。

既然最优化已经达到了一个 成熟的程度,那么关注在更进一步的研究中被期望的结果是自然而然的了。

In the more mature areas such as linear programming and unconstrained optimization, and in those of intermediate maturity such as integer and constrained convex optimization, emphasis will be placed on rapid, large-scale computation. This will be driven both by the need to solve large problems in manufacturing and logistics, and by the opportunities created in new computer technologies such as parallel processing. Research in such newer and lesser understood areas as global, multicriteria, and qualitative optimization, will necessarily deal with basic issues. 在那些更为成熟的如线性规划和无约束优化等领域和一些不太成熟的如整数和约束优化等 领域,研究的重点将被放到快速的,大规模的计算上。

制造业和物流上的一些重大问题需要 和如并行进程等新的计算机技术所创造出的机会将会推动这些研究的进行。

一些在全新领域 和我们知之甚少的领域如全球性和多标准定性优化等研究, 将会必然的应用于处理一些比较 基本的日常事情上。

Stochastic processes We live in a world in which we have limited knowledge and an inability to predict the future with certainty. A telecommunications network may suddenly be flooded by calls; a vital machine in a manufacturing plant may fail unexpectedly; a firefighting service may be called into action without warning. The study of stochastic processes provides us with a systematic way to model, design and control service systems characterized by such uncertainly. Operations research will continue to provide an observational framework for such studies through fundamental research into foundations of probabilistic phenomena.

随机系统 我们生活在一个知识短缺和无力对未来事实进行预测的世界中。

一个通信网络可能会突然被 阻塞; 车间的一个至关重要的机器可能意外发生故障; 一个消防系统可能在没有任何征兆的 情况下被要求执行任务。

对过程的学习将会为我们提供一种系统的方法去建立、 设计和 控制系统中的不稳定因素。

运筹学为我们提供了一个通过基础研究而了解基本的概率现象的 框架。

Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) and computer/communication networks exemplify complex systems that fall into a class called discrete event stochastic systems (DESS). The efficient design and operation of these systems is extremely important to economic competitiveness, yet system behavior is not completely understood. Present methods of analysis and design of DESS focus on their behavior in the steady state, a conceptualization that requires performance measures to be made “in the long run” or “averaged over time.” Yet, most systems exhibit dynamic behavior on their way to (or sometimes even during) the steady state that may produce a deviation in performance from that computed by steady state analysis. Design and control of such systems (for example, multiechelon spare parts inventories, integrated manufacturing cells or computer/communication nets) involving explicit consideration of the cost or impact of transient behavior, is now a real possibility. 柔性制造系统和计算机通信网络是一个复杂的系统, 也就是所谓的离散事件随机系统的很好 的例证。

这些系统有效的设计和运转对经济学上的竞争是极其重要的, 但是系统行为却是很 难被完全掌握。

现代离散事件随机系统的分析和设计方法集中在它们在稳定状态下的行为 上,在长期的运转或超过平均时间的运作中一个需要绩效测量的概念形成了。

然而,在他们 向稳定状态过渡的过程中大多数系统展示动态行为, 而稳定状态也可能会产生一些被稳定状 态分析计算出来的执行偏差。

这类涉及成本的清楚估价或短期行为影响系统的设计和控制, 现已成为一种可能。

(例如, 多样级别剩余零件的清单, 集成制造组织, 或计算机通信网络) 。

 
 

微信扫一扫 关注一点知道
微信提问题 答案马上自动回复