时间:2018-06-27 11:24:29 贡献者:筑魂路

导读:Lesson 1 Machinery design may be simple or enormously complex, easy or difficult, mathematical or nonmathematical, it may involve a trivial problem or one of great importance. 机械设计可能简单,可能复杂;可能容易,可能困难;


Lesson 1 Machinery design may be simple or enormously complex, easy or difficult, mathematical or nonmathematical, it may involve a trivial problem or one of great importance. 机械设计可能简单,可能复杂;可能容易,可能困难;可能要求精确,也可能不精确;有 时要解决的可能是一些很平常琐碎的问题,也可能是非常重大的问题。

In the modern industrialized world, the wealth and living standards of a nation are closely linked with their capabilities to design and manufacture engineering products. It can be claimed that the advancement of machinery design and manufacturing can remarkably promote the overall level of a country’s industrialization. 在现代的工业化社会,一个国家的财富和生活水平与他们设计和制造工程产品的能力紧密 相关,可以说机械设计和制造业的进步能显著地促进一个国家工业化整体水平的提高。

Definition of problem is necessary to fully define and understand the problem, after which it is possible to restate the goal in a more reasonable and realistic way than the original problem statement. 定义问题对全面认识、理解问题非常必要,之后可以更加合理可行的方式来重新阐述。

The synthesis is one in which as many alternative possible design approaches are sought, usually without regard for their value or quality. 综合就是对各种可供选择的设计方法进行进一步研究,这时往往不考虑这些方法的设计特 点和设计质量。

This is also sometimes called the ideation and invention step in which the largest possible number of creative solutions is generated. 这有时也称为构思和发明阶段,在这个阶段中要产生尽可能多的有创意的想法。

The competent engineer should not be afraid of the possibility of not succeeding in a presentation 有能力的工程师不应该害怕在提高自己的方案时遭遇失败。

In fact, the greatest gains are obtained by those willing to risk defeat. 实际上,失败乃成功之母。

there is strong sense of satisfaction and pride inseeing the results of one's ceartive efforts emerge into actual products and processes that benefit people. 当看到自己创造性的努力成果转变成可以造福人们的实际产品和工作流程时,一种强烈的 满足感和骄傲感油然而生。

the design engineer should not only have adequate technical training,but must also be a person of sound judgment and wide experence,qulities which are usually acquired only after considerable time has been spent in actual proessional work. 设计师不仅需要足够的技术训练,而且还必须是一个具备合理的判断和丰富经验的人,具 备这些素质通常需要在实际工作中花费相当长的时间。

Lesson 2 mechanisms 1、a mechanism is the members combination more than two or two connections with the members to realize the regulation motion made by way of the activity. 机构是由两个或两个以上的构件通过活动联接以实现规定运动的


2、 Activity connections between two members that have the relative motion are called the motion pairs . 两个有相对运动的构件间的活动连接称为运动副。

3、All motion pairs contact with planes are called lower pairs and all motion pairs contact with points or lines are called high pairs .其中凡为面接触的运动 副称为低副凡为点或线接触的运动副成为高副。

4 、 The motion specific property of mechanism chiefly depends on the relative size between the members, and the character of motion pairs, as well as the mutual disposition method etc.机构的运动特性主要取决于构件间的相对尺寸、 运动副的性质以及相互配置方式等。

5、The member is used to support the members of motion in the mechanism to be called the machine frame and used as the reference coordinate to study the motion system. 机构中用以支持运动构件的构件称为机架,并被当做研究运动的参考坐标系。

6、The member that possesses the independence motion is called motivity member. The member except machine frame and motivity member being compelled to move in the mechanism is called driven member.具有独立运动的构件称为原动件。

机构中除 机架和主动件之外的被迫做强制运动的构件称为从动件。

7、The independent parameter (coordinate number) essential for description or definite mechanism motion is called the free degree of mechanism.描述或确定机构 的运动所必需的独立参变量(坐标数)称为机构自由度。

8、For gaining the definite relative motion between the members of mechanism, it is necessary make the number of motivity members of mechanism equal the number of free degrees.为使机构的构件获得确定的相对运动,必需使机构的原动件数等 于机构自由度数。

9、Mechanisms may be categorized in several different ways to emphasize their similarities and differences.根据各个不同机构之间的异同点,常采用以下几种不同的 分类方法。

10、A planar mechanism is one in which all particles describe plane curves in space and all these curves lie in parallel planes;i.e. the loci of all points are plane curves parallel to a single common plane.在平面机构中,所有的点在空间 绘出的是平面曲线,且所有的点的轨迹是与一个单一公共平面相平行的平面曲线。

11、The plane four-bar linkage, the plate cam and driven parts, and the slidercrank mechanism are familiar examples of planar mechanism.平面四连杆机构、平面 盘形凸轮、从动件及曲柄滑块机构等都是平面机构的常见例子。

12 、 As such, cams are widely used in almost all machinery. They include internal combustion engines, a variety of machine tools, compressors and computers.这样便使凸轮广泛用于几乎所有的机械设备中,包括内燃机、各种机床、压缩 机和计算机。

2.4 Exercise Translate the lineate phrases and fill in the brackets 该机构为平面四连杆机构( the plane four-bar linkage), 1 为机架(machine frame), 2 为原动件(motivity member), 3、4 为从动件( driven member), A 为回转副( revolute pairs),属于低副(lower pairs),

B 为固定连接( fixed connection)。

构件( component )4 中的焊接符号(welding symbol )表示 4 为一个构件。

该机构的自由度数( the number of free degree)必须等于原动件数,才能实现确定的 运动(motion)。

Unit4 1:Fasteners are devices which permit one part to be joined to a second part and, hence, they are involved in almost all designs. 紧固件可以将一个零件与另一个 零 件相 连接。

因此 ,几乎 在所 有 的设 计中 都要用 到紧 固件。

There are three main classifications of fasteners, which are described as follows. 紧固件可以分为以 下 3 类。

2 : The failure or loosening of a single fastener could result in a simple nuisance such as a door rattle or in a serious situation such as a wheel coming off. Such possibilities must be taken into account in the selection of the type of fastener for the specific application. 一个紧固件的失效或松动肯能会带来车门 嘎嘎响这类小麻烦,也可能造成车轮脱落这种严重后果。

因此,在为一个特定用途选择紧 固件时,应该考虑到上述各种可能性。

3:Nuts, bolts, and screws are undoubtedly the most common means of joining materials. Since they are so widely used, it is essential that these fasteners attain maximum effectiveness at the lowest possible cost. 由于紧固件应用非常广 泛,所以对它们来说,价格低,功效高是非常必要的。

4:The lock washer is useful only when the bolt might loosen because of a relative change between the length of the bolt and the parts assembled by it. 锁紧垫圈仅在螺栓与装配件间长度相对 变化而松动时才起作用。

5 : This change in the length of the bolt can be caused by a number of factors-creep in the bolt, loss of resilience, difference in thermal expansion between the bolt and the bolted members, or wear. 这种螺 栓长度的变化可由多种因素引起-螺栓内部蠕变、弹性丧失、螺栓与被连接件间的热膨胀差 异或磨损。

6 : Shafts are mounted in bearings and transmit power through such devices as gears, pulleys, cams and clutches. 轴安装在轴承中,通过齿轮、皮带轮、凸轮和离 合器等传递动力。

7:These devices introduce forces which attempt to bend the shaft; hence, the shaft must be rigid enough to prevent overloading of the supporting bearings. 通过这些零件传递的力可能会使轴发生弯曲变形,因此,轴应该有足够的刚度以防止支承 轴承受力过大。

8 : Another important aspect of shaft design is the method of directly connecting one shaft to another. This is accomplished by devices such as rigid and flexible couplings. 在轴的设计中,轴与轴之间的连接方法是要重点考虑的,可 由刚性或者弹性联轴器来实现。

9 : However, in the case of bearings, the reduction of friction is one of the prime considerations: Friction results in loss of power, the generation of heat, and increased wear of mating surfaces. 然而,设计轴承时,减小摩擦是要考虑的基本因素之一,因为摩擦会导致功率下降、发热 和 配 合 表 面 的 磨 损 。

10 : The deflection of the bearing elements will become important where loads are high, although this is usually of less magnitude than that of the shafts or other components associated with the bearing. 当载荷较大 时,轴承零件会发生变形,尽管变形的程度远小于轴或其它与轴承相连的零部件,但仍然


11 : Wear is primarily associated with the introduction of contaminants, and sealing arrangements must be chosen with regard to the hostility of the environment. 磨损主要由污染物的进入引起,必须选用密封装置以防止周围环境的不良 影响。

12:Notwithstanding the fact that responsibility for the basic design of ball bearings and roller bearings rests with the bearing manufacturer, the machine designer must form a correct appreciation of the duty to be performed by the bearing and be concerned not only with bearing selection but with the conditions for correct installation. 尽管球轴承和滚子轴承的设计由轴承制造厂负 责,但是,机器设计人员必须对轴承的使用有一个正确估计,不仅要考虑轴承的选择,而 却还要考虑轴承的正确安装条件。

13 : A bearing is a connector that permits the connected members to either rotate or translate(more to and from) relative to one another but prevents them from separating in the direction in which loads are applied. 轴承是一个连接 器,它不仅允许连接件旋转或相互传递力,而却可以防止它们在负载的方向上分开。

14:Sliding bearing are the simplest to construct and, considering the multitude of pin-jointed devices and structures in use,are probably the most commonly used. 滑动轴承是最简单的构件,考虑到大量的销接设备和结构都在使用,所以滑动轴承是最常 使用的。

第六章 1 、 Computer – aided design CAD is defined as the application of computers and graphics software to aid or enhance the product design from conceptualization to documentation. 计算机辅助设计(CAD)就是在产品设计过程中,利用计算机和图形软件,对产品进行辅助 设计以提高产品设计效率的一种技术。

2、The major advantage of a 2-D model is that it gives a certain amount of 3-D information about a part without the need to create the database of a full 3-D model. 二维半模型则可以表示出零件单侧连续截面的形状细节,它的主要优点在于不需要建立完 整的三维模型就可以表达出零部件必要的形状特点。

3 、 FEM analysis is available on most CAD systems to aid in heat transfer, stress-strain analysis, dynamic characteristics, and other engineering computations. 在大多数 CAD 系统中可以进行有限元分析,主要分析内容包括对零部件进行传热状况分 析、应力——应变分析、动力学特性分析等。

4 、 CAM can be defined as computer aided preparation manufacturing including decision-making, process and operational planning, software design techniques, and artificial intelligence, and manufacturing with different types of automation (NC machine, NC machine centers, NC machining cells, NC flexible manufacturing systems), and different types of realization (CNC single unit technology, DNC group technology). CAM 定义为计算机辅助制造,它包括制造决策、生产过程和操作规划、程序设计、人工智 能、自动化控制制造设备(如数控机床、数控加工中心、数控加工单元、数控柔性制造系 统)及相应的技术(如数控单元技术,直接数控成组技术) 。

5 、 When a design has frozen, manufacturing can begin. Computers have an important role to play in many aspects of production. 产品设计好之后,接下来就是对其进行制造。

如今在机械产品制造中的许多环节里,计算 机都扮演着重要的角色。

6、Computer aided process planning (CAPP) can be defined as the functions which use computers to assist the work of process planners.The levels of assistance depend on the different strategies employed to implement the system. 计算机辅助工艺设计(CAPP)就是工艺员借助计算机制定产品工艺流程的过程,利用的程 度取决于制定流程的方法。

Lower level strategies only use computer for sotrage and retrieval of the data for the process plans which will be constructed manually by process planners,as well as for supplying the data which will be used in the planner’s new work. 低层次的辅助工艺员设计是指工艺员利用计算机对手工完成的工艺数据进行存储和修改, 同时为编制新的工艺流程提供数据。

7 、 The highest level strategy,which is the ultimate goal of CAPP,generates process plans by computer,which may replace process planners,when the knowledge and experties of process planning and working experience have been incorporated into the computer programs. 最高层次的计算机辅助工艺设计也是 CAPP 的最终实现目标,它将工艺流程编制的理论、技 术以及经验编成程序输入计算机,由计算机自动完成工艺流程的编制,不需要工艺员的参 与。

8 、 The database in a CAPP system based on the highest level strategy will be directly integrated with conjunctive systems,e.g.CAD and CAM.CAPP has been recognized as playing a key role in CIMS (Computer integrated manufacturing system). 此外,它的数据库可直接与其他系统集成,如 CAD 系统和 CAM 系统,因此,CAPP 被认为是 计算机集成制造系统中的一个重要组成部分。

7 单元 1 、 Generally, an optimization method controls a series of applications, including CAD software as well as FEA automatic solid meshers and analysis processors. 优化方法决定了产品设计过程中的京都问题,包括 CAD 软件建模的精确度,有限元分析中 网格划分的正确度以及分析处理器的计算精度等。

Ideally, there is seamless data exchange via direct memory transfer between the CAD and FEA applications without the need for file translation. 从优化设计理论的角度上说,CAD 格式的文件和 FEA 格式的文件之间不需要任何的格式转 换,就可以实现数据的无缝交换。

2 、 The user simply selects which dimension in the CAD model needs to be optimized and the design criterion, which may include maximum stresses, temperatures or frequencies. The analysis process appropriate for the design criteria is then performed. 用户只要挑选出零件部件或装配体 CAD 模型中需要优化的几何尺寸,确定相应的设计准则 (如最大应力、最高温度和最大频率) 。

3、Care is taken such that the FEA model is also updated using the principle of associativity, which implies that constraints and loads are preserved from the

prior analysis. 需要注意的是,CAD 与 FEA 格式文件之间的关联性使得 FEA 模型更新了,但约束和施加的 载荷保持不变。

4、The typical design process involves iterations during which the geometry of the part(s) is altered. In general, each iteration also involves some form of analysis in order to obtain viable engineering results. 零部件结构的优化设计过程往往需要进行多步迭代计算,在整个计算过程中,零部件的几 何外形不断变化,优化。

5、At first glance, it may appear that design optimization is a means to replace the engineer and his or her expertise from the design loop. 乍看上去,优化设计技术是一种能够替代工程师进行工程设计的工具。

6、This is certainly not the case because any design optimization application cannot infer what should be optimized,and what are the design variables,the quantities or parameters thar can be changed in order to achieve an optimum design. 但事实上不是这样,因为任何优化设计软件都不能确定应该优化什么对象,哪些是设计变 量,需要改变哪些量或参数。

7、This complexity should be remedied by the design optimization application by giving the engineer not only a choice of methods, but also a suggestion as to which approach is most appropriate for his or her design problem. 利用优化设计软件可以很好地解决这个问题,因为优化设计软件不仅可以帮助工程师选择 解决问题的方法,而且还能够帮助工程师找到最佳解决方案。

8、During the design process,the engineer may alter parameters or characteristics of the CAD and/or FEA models,including some of the physical dimensions,the material or how the part or assembly si loaded or constrained. 在设计过程中,工程师可能需要改变 CAD 或 FEA 模型的一些参数或特征属性,如零部件或 装配体的几何尺寸、材料参数以及约束和加载的状况。

9、Obviously,linear static FEA has drawbacks as well.For example,significant engineering expertise may required when estimating the magnitude and direction of loads that are a consequence of motion. 但该方法也存在缺点,例如,在估算处于运动状态的零部件或装配体的载荷大小或方向 时,往往需要较丰富的专业知识(这种方法无法满足要求) 。

10、Consider the initial design stage when the engineer applies constraints on a particular surface of the FEA model;it can be safely assumed that this surface coincides with a surface in the CAD model. 可以通过例子来说明上述问题,例如,在刚开始对某一零部件或装配体进行有限元分析 时,工程师一般要对其有限元分析模型上的某一平面施加约束。

11、Mose optimization problems are made up of three basic components. 大多数优化设计都要涉及以下 3 个基本问题: (1)An objective function which we want to minimize (or maximize).For instance,in designing an automobile panel,we might want to minimize the stress in a particular region. 目标函数的最小值(或最大值) :例如,在设计汽车的仪表板时,往往需要它在某一指定区 域上受到应力最小。

(2)A set of design variables that affect the value of the objective function.In the automobile panel design problem,the variables used define the geometry and

material of the panel. 影响目标函数值的设计变量:例如,在汽车仪表设计中用来确定仪表板几何外形和材料变 量。

(3)A set of constraints that allow the design variables to have certain values but exclude others.In the automobile panel design problem,we would probably want to limit its weight. 约束条件:这些约束条件使得优化设计中的变量只能在某一范围内取值。

例如,在设计汽 车的仪表板时,常常需要限制它的质量。

作业部分: 1、The term optimization is often used very loosely in general speech, for our purposes it has a precise meaning: the action of finding the best possible solution to a problem as defined by an unambiguous criterion: the cost function. 一般来说,优化这一术语在非正式场合中通常有明确的含义:就是由所定义问题的明确的 目标函数寻找最优化的解决方案。

2、The growing acceptance of the Taguchi method comes from its applicability to a wide variety of problems with a methodology that is not highly mathematical. Taguchi 方法无需精确求解数学模型,可求解多种优化设计问题,因此越来越多人接受。

3、By optimal design we mean the best of all feasible designs.Optimization is the process of maximizing a desired quantity or minimizing an undesired one.Optimization theory is the body of mathematics that deals with the properties of maxima and minima and how to find maxima and minima numerically. 对于优化设计,我们所指的是所有可行设计方案中最优解。



Lesson 9 Engineering Tolerance(工程公差) A solid is defined by its surface boundaries.(物体由其轮廓来确定形状。

) [1]Designers typically specify a component’s nominal dimensions such that it fulfils its requirements. (设计人员会给零件标注满足的公称尺寸。

)In reality, components cannot be made repeatedly to nominal dimensions, due to surface irregularities and the intrinsic surface roughness.(实际上,由于表面不规则以及 固有的表面粗糙度,各个零件不能完全按照公称尺寸加工出来。

) [2] Some variability in dimensions must be allowed to ensure manufacture is possible.(必须允许尺寸有一些变动量以确保能够制造) However,the variability permitted must not be so great that the performance of the assembled parts is impaired.(但尺寸变化范围不能太大,以免装配性能变差。

) The allowed variability on the individual component dimensions is called the tolerance.(单个零件所允许 的尺寸变化量范围称为公差。

) Component Tolerances(零件公差) Control of dimensions is necessary in order to ensure assembly and interchangeability of components. Tolerances are specified on critical dimensions that affect clearances and interferences fits.(为了确保零件的装配和互换性,有必要控制尺寸,对于影响间隙和 过盈配合的关键尺寸应指定公差。

) One method of specifying tolerances is tostate the nominal dimension followed by the permissible variation, so a

dimension could be stated as 40.000 mm± 0.003 mm.(指定公差的一种方法是在公称 尺寸后标出容许偏差,如尺寸可以标注为40.000±0.003mm。

) [3]This means that thedimension should be machined so that it is between 39.997 mm and 40.003 mm.(这 就意味着加工的尺寸必须在39.997mm和40.003mm之间。

)Where the variation can vary either side of the nominal dimension, the tolerance is called a bilateral tolerance.(误差可以在公称尺寸两侧变化的公差叫做双向公差。

) For a unilateral tolerance, one tolerance is zero, e.g. 0.006 0 40+ .(对于单向公差,一个公差为 零,如40+0.006/0.)Most organizations have general tolerances that apply to dimensions when an explicit dimension is not specified on a drawing.(当图中没有 明确给出尺寸公差时,可以采用通用的尺寸公差。

) For machined dimensions a general tolerance may be ±0.5 mm.(对于加工尺寸,通用公差可能是±0.5mm。

) So a dimension specified as 15.0 mm may range between 14.5 mm and 15.5 mm.(因此,被 指定为15.0mm的尺寸范围可以是14.5mm—15.5mm。

)Other general tolerances can beapplied to features such as angles, drilled and punched holes, castings, forgings, weld beads and fillets.(其他通用公差可以适用于如角度、钻削的孔和冲裁 出的孔,铸件,锻件、焊缝以及焊角等情形。

)[4]When specifying a tolerance for acomponent, reference can be made to previous drawings or general engineering practice.(在确定零件公差时,可以参考以前的图纸或普遍的 工程惯例。

) Tolerances are typically specified in bands as defined in British or ISO standards.(公差通常以英文或ISO标准来定义范围。

) Table 9-1 gives a guide for the general applications of tolerances.(表9-1给出了通用公差应用指 南。

) For a given tolerance, e.g. H7/s6, a set of numerical values is available from a corresponding chart for the size of component under consideration. (对于给定的公差,比如 H7/s6,为零件尺寸提供一组与图表对应的数值。

)The following (Table 9-1) is the specific examples for a shaft or cylindrical spigot fitting into a hole.(下面给出关于装 入孔内的轴或圆柱形零件配合的具体例子。

) Standard Fits for Holes and Shafts(孔和轴的标准配合)A standard engineering task is to determine tolerances for a cylindrical component, e.g. a shaft, fitting or rotating inside a corresponding cylindrical component or hole. (制造工程中常要求确定圆柱形零件的公差,比如安装在相应的圆柱形零件或孔内的,或者 是在其内部旋转的轴。

)The tightness of fit will depend on the application.(配合的松紧取决于应用场合。

) [5]For example, a gear located onto a shaft would require a “tight”interference fit, where the diameter of the shaft is actually slightly greater than the inside diameter of the gear hub in order to be able to transmit the desired torque. (例如,定位在轴上的齿轮需要 紧 配合,这里轴的直径实际上比齿轮轮毂的内径稍微大 一些,以便能传递所需要的扭矩。

) Alternatively, the diameter of a journalbearing must be greater than the diameter of the shaft to allow rotation.(另 外,滑动轴承的直径必须大于轴的直径以使其旋转。

)[6] Given that it is noteconomically possible to manufacture components to exact dimensions,some variability in sizes of both the shaft and hole dimension must be specified. (假定从经济上讲不能把零件制造成精确的尺寸,则必须确定轴和孔尺寸上的大小变化

量,) However, therange of variability should not be so large that the operation of the assembly is impaired. (但是变化的范围不应太大,以免装配时受损。

)Rather than having aninfinite variety of tolerance dimensions that could be specified, national and international standards have been produced defining bands of tolerances,(为了不 至于有太多的公差尺寸,已经制定了国家和国际标准公差带,) examples of which are listed in Table 9-1, e.g. H11/c11.(实例列在表9-1中,比如H11/c11。

) In orderto use this information the following list and Fig.9.1 give definitions used in conventional tolerance.(为了使用这一资料,表9-1和图9-1给出了常规的公差规定。

)Usually the hole-based system is used, as the results in a reduction in the variety of drill, reamer, broach and gauge tooling required.(通常使用的是基孔 制,因为这会减少所需要的钻头、铰刀、拉刀和计量工具的种类。

)Size: a number expressing in a particular unit the numerical value of a dimension.(尺寸:以专用单位表示的尺寸数值。

) Actual size: the size of a part as obtained by measurement.(实际尺寸:通过测量 得到的部件尺寸。

) Limits of size: the maximum and minimum sizes permitted for a feature.(尺寸极 限:零件允许的最大和最小尺寸。

) Maximum limit of size: the greater of the two limits of size.(最大极限尺寸:两 个尺寸极限中较大的。

) Minimum limit of size: the smaller of the two limits of size.(最小极限尺寸:两 个极限尺寸中较小的。

) Basic size: the size by reference to which the limits of size are fixed.(基本 尺寸:用以确定尺寸极限的参考尺寸。

) Deviation: the algebraic difference between a size and the corresponding basic size.(偏差:尺寸与其对应的基本尺寸的差值。

) Upper deviation: the algebraic difference between the maximum limit of size and the corresponding basic size(上偏差:最大尺寸极限与其对应的基本尺寸的差值。

) Lower deviation: the algebraic difference between the minimum limit of size and the corresponding basic size.(下偏差:最小尺寸极限与其对应的基本尺寸的差值。

) Tolerance: the difference between the maximum limit of size and the minimum limit of size.(公差:最大尺寸极限与最小尺寸极限的差值。

) Shaft: the term used by convention to designate all external features of a part. (用于常规设计一个零件所有外部特征的术语。

) Hole: the term used by convention to designate all internal features of a part. (用于常规设计一个零件所有内部特征的术语。

)1、 10 单元 2、 Lathes, milling machines, drill presses, boring machines, grinding machines, turret punches, flame or wire-cutting and welding machines, and even pipe benders are available with numerical controls.

车床、铣床,钻床,镗床,磨床,回转车床,电火花或线切割机床,焊接机床,甚至 弯管机都可以利用到数字控制技术。

3、 In its most common form, the commands refer to positions of a machine tool spindle with respect to the worktable on which the part is fixed。

最长用的指令形式可以使机床刀具主轴位于工作台上的具体位置,工作台是用于固定 加工零件的。

4、 Numerical control (NC) is a form of programmable automation in which the processing equipment is controlled by means of numbers,letters,and other symbols. 数控技术是一种利用程序实现自动技术控制的技术,加工制造设备采用数控技术后能 有数字、字符和符号等进行控制。

5、 There are a number of interpolation schemes that have been developed to deal with the various problems that are encountered in generating a smooth continuous path with a contouring type NC system. 有多种插补方法用于处理在轮廓线数控系统中生成光滑的轮廓线是遇到的各种问题。

6、 Switching commands pertain to on/off position for coolant supplies, spindle rotation, direction of spindle rotation, tool changes, workpiece feeding, clamping, and so on. 开关类指令用于令却又供给、住在旋转、主轴旋转方向选择、换刀、工作进给、夹具 开关等。

7、 The physical size and cost of a digital computer has been significantly reduced at the same time that its computational capabilities have been substantially increased. 数字计算机在尺寸和价格的大幅降低的同时数字计算机计算能力的提高了 8、 DNC computers distribute instructional data to, and collect data from, a large number of machines. CNC computers control only one machine, or a small number of machines. DNC 计算机是将指令数据发送到许多机床去或从许多机床中收集数据,而 CNC 计算机每 次只控制一台或几台机床。

9、 DNC software is developed not only to control individual pieces of production equipment, but also to serve as part of a management information system in the manufacturing sector of the firm. CNC software is developed to augment the capabilities of a particular machine tool. DNC 计算机开发的软件不仅可以用于控制产品的单件生产,而且可以用于企业制造部门 的管理信息系统,而 CNC 计算机开发的软件一般只用于某个特殊加工的工具。


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