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 时间:2018-07-01 04:33:48 贡献者:MZW0801020222

导读:工业工程的真正价值 Real IE Value In addition, the IE now has a greater opportunity to concentrate on any one of a broad variety of areas that many companies now recognize as individual departments-including simulation, operations research, e

土木工程专业英语翻译
土木工程专业英语翻译

工业工程的真正价值 Real IE Value In addition, the IE now has a greater opportunity to concentrate on any one of a broad variety of areas that many companies now recognize as individual departments-including simulation, operations research, ergonomics, material handling and logistics. 值得一提的是, 工业工程现在有更多的机会去集中于现在许多企业已经视为独立的学科的众 多领域中的一个-----包括防真学、运筹学、人因学、物料搬运和物流学。

Work-measured Labor Standards 基于作业测量的劳动标准 If you are a manufacturer, chances are you have a bill-of-materials (BOM) system to determine standard parts cost. Do you also have an equivalent bill-of-labor system to determine standard labor cost? 如果你是一个制造商, 你有可能会有一个物料清单系统来确定标准件的成本。

你是否也能得 到类似的劳动力清单系统来确定标准的劳动成本? Time study——The most widely used tool to develop standard times is still time study. Time study reflects what is happening in your job or project. It is also easy to learn and use. Now, the PC has made summarization of time study data a matter of seconds instead of hours. 时间研究----用来开发标准时间使用最广泛的工具依然是时间研究。

时间研究能把你的工作 或者项目中发生的事情展现出来。

时间研究也比较容易学习使用。

如今,电脑用几秒而不是 几小时就能总结时间研究。

Activity sampling——An often overlooked tool is activity sampling, usually called work sampling by North American IEs. In this technique, a group of workers are observed at random times and their individual activities noted each hour. After a week or two, the average time spent on each activity can be calculated, and statistically justified. The average time per piece can then be determined. 活动抽样----一个经常被忽视的工具是活动抽样, 北美的工业工程师通常称之为工作抽样。

这种技术抽取随机时间观察工人并在每个小时对他们个人的活动作出记录。

一两周后, 每个 活动的平均花费时间可以被计算并系统地定义下来。

每件工作的平均时间就能够确定。

Let’s quickly review the techniques, and put them into perspective according to the tasks for which they apply: ● motion analysis: very short, repetitive tasks; ● time study: short, repetitive and variable tasks; ● activity sampling: longer, variable tasks; ● historical data: long, repetitive and variable tasks; ● estimates: seldom performed, variable tasks. 让我们快速回顾这些技术, 并弄清楚它们适用的任务 ● 动作分析:时间非常短的重复性工作。

● 时间研究:时间短的重复性变量工作 ● 活动抽样: 时间较长的可变工作; ● 历史数据:时间较长的重复性可变工作; ● 估计: 很少执行的可变工作

P30 Elements——Individual work-measured times are often referred to as standard elements or standard data. Some companies maintain standard data in ring binders, but most don’t even bother cataloging individual work-measured time elements. APC-based system encourages standard data development and application because it simplifies the process and eliminates extra paperwork. Most software programs offer integrated motion-level standard data in the form of an integrated PMTS. But your time study, activity sampling, historical data, and estimate elements are also legitimate standard data elements. Such elements can be cataloged in a computerized standards system for rapid application to worker standards. This is much faster than looking them up in a ring binder. 原理----独立作业测量次通常被称为标准单元或标准数据。

一些公司把标准数据记在环形手 册里面, 但大多数公司不干扰记录独立作业测量时间单元。

一个基于计算机的系统有利于标 准数据的开发和应用, 因为它简化了这个过程, 消除了额外的文书工作。

大多数软件程序以 一种预定动作时间系统的形式提供集成的动作水平标准数据。

但时间研究, 工作抽样, 历史 数据, 估计单元是合理的标准数据原理。

这种原理可以在计算机编目标准体系以便于快速应 用于职工的标准。

这样会比去查环形手册要快得多。

Operations——worker standards are often referred to as operation or process standards, and are typically paper systems just begging for computerization. The operations or process level is the core level in any PC-based standards system, and it often offers side benefits such as manufacturing line balancing. Frequencies, allowances, internal elements, setup elements, workplace layouts, assembly sketches, operator instructions, and other worker-oriented aspects are also handled at this level. 运营操作----职工标准通常被称为操作或处理标准,通常是纸面上的没有计算机化的系统。

在 任何基于计算机的标准系统中操作或流程级别是核心级,它通常带来了副作用如生产线平 衡。

频率、宽放时间、内部要素,设置要素,工作场所的布局,装配示意图,运营商指令,和其 他工人取向方面也在这个层次上处理。

21世纪的工厂布局 Next Generation Factory Layouts An alternative to a functional layout is a cellular configuration, in which the factory is partitioned into cells, each dedicated to a family of products with similar processing requirements. Although cellular factories can simplify work flow and reduce material handling, they are generally designed to produce a specific set of products whose demand levels are assumed to be stable and product life cycles sufficiently long In fact, cells are usually dedicated to single product families with little allowance for intercell flows. Cellular factories are inefficient when demand for existing products fluctuates or new products are introduced often. Some authors have proposed alternative cellular structures to overcome these problems, such as overlapping cells, cells with machine sharing, and fractal cells. Although an improvement, these alternatives remain bounded by their cellular structure. 对于功能式布局的一个可替代形式是单元化结构。

在单元化结构中工厂分成许多小单元, 每 个单元都可用于加工同一系列的具有相似要求的产品。

虽然单元生产工艺能够简化工作流程 降低材料处理, 但是一般只用于一套特定的、 需求水平稳定的并且生产周期足够长的生产流

程。

实际上,生产单元通常用于跨单元生产流程代价不大的单一产品系列。

单元化生产用于 需求有波动的现有产品和经常引入新产品的生产线的时候效率不高。

有些专家开发了替代性 的单元化结构来克服这些问题,例如重叠式单元、机器可共享的单元、和不规则单元。

虽然 有改进,可这些替代品依然被单元化结构所局限。

Layout design procedures, whether for functional or cellular layouts , have been largely based on a deterministic paradigm. Such design parameters as product mix, product demands, and product routings are assumed to be known with certainty. 布局设计流程,无论是功能布局还是单元化布局,都主要给予确定性的范例。

这些设计 参数,诸如产品结构,产品需求和生产工艺都应假定为已知的。

The design criterion is often a static measure of material-handling efficiency ( a total adjacency score, total materialhandling cost ,or a combination of both ), which does not capture the need for flexibility and reconfigurability. 设计准则通常静态衡量材料处理效率(总邻接分数,总材料处理成本或二者相结合) 。

这 样有失灵活性和可重构性。

In fact, the relationship between layout flexibility and layout performance is poorly understood and analytical models for its evaluation are lacking. The structural properties of layouts that affect their flexibility are also not well understood .Current design criteria do not capture the effect of layout on such performance measures as congestion, cycle time, and throughput rate. 事实上,人们对灵活性布局和布局性能之间的关系知之甚少,缺乏分析模型评估。

影响他 们灵活性的结构布局也不甚了解。

目前的设计标准不能捕捉到以下性能指标的布局效果, 诸 如堵塞,周期时间和生产率。

They also ignore the impact of such operational parameters as setup, batching, and loading and unloading at work centers. More important, they measure only average performance and in so doing cannot guarantee effectiveness under all operating scenarios. Clearly, we need a new class of layouts, new evaluation criteria, and new models and solution procedures. 他们还忽略了操作参数的影响,诸如设置,配料,以及在工作中心装卸等。

更重要的是, 他们只测量平均表现,这样并不能确保在所有操作方案下的效力。

毫无疑问,我们需要一类 新型布局,新的评价标准,新的模型和解决方案。

In the last few years, there has been a concerted effort in the metal cutting industry to develop machines that are highly flexible and scalable and that can perform many functions and be adjusted for various capacities. 近年来, 在金属切削行业中出现了一种协调一致的努力, 发展具有高度灵活性和可扩展性 的机器,可以执行许多功能,适应各种能力。

The functionality and efficiency of the machines can easily be upgraded by plugging in additional modules or acquiring additional software. If successful, such efforts could lead to facilities that use one machine for most processing with little material handing and movement. 机器的功能和效率可以很容易的得到提升, 通过插入额外的模块或者获取额外的软件。

如 果能够成功,这种努力可以使一台机器完成大多数加工,并且很少材料处理和设备迁移。

Because a machine can be rapidly configured for different mixes and volumes, changes in production requirements would have little effect on layout. 因为机器可以很快地配置成不同的组合和体积,因此生产需求将不会对布局产生很大 影响。

Three approaches to layout design address three distinct needs of the flexible factory. The first two approaches present novel layout configurations, namely distributed and modular layouts. In the third approach, we use operational performance as a design criterion to generate what we term agile layouts. 三种方法来布局设计以满足灵活的工厂的三种不同需求。

前两种当下新型布局结构称 为分布式和模块式布局。

在第三种方法中, 我们用操作参数作为设计标准以产生我们所谓的 敏捷布局。

工业工程在工程经济学中的应用 The Role of IE in Engineering Economics The role of engineering economics is to correctly assess the appropriateness of a given project, estimate its value, and justify it from an economic standpoint. If projects are not acceptable, then the evaluation process that has been used to reach this conclusion should also explain their poor returns. That same process should also indicate ways to improve the investment proposal to make it more attractive to management. 工程经济学的作用是正确评估适当的一个项目,估计价值,并从经济角度证明。

如果项目不 可接受, 那么就得出结论的评价过程还应该解释他们得到不理想的回报的原因。

它还应说明 如何改善投资方案,使其更具吸引力的管理。

As seen here, the evaluation process can be overwhelming to individuals who attempt to justify their projects. Fortunately, significant research has been made in this area for the kinds of projects mentioned here. Without claiming that engineering economy has solved all problems, it can be said that help is available. Engineering economy can contribute to several steps of this evaluation process. 看到这里,评估过程可以完全说服试图证明自己项目的人。

幸运的是,对于已提到的各种项 目在这一领域已经做了大量研究。

虽然不能说工程经济已经解决了所有的问题, 但起码可以 说可以提供有用的帮助。

工程经济能有助于这个评价过程的几个步骤。

Armed with economic models tailored to specific technologies, industrial engineers are able to measure, for instance, the cost of flexibility and, in turn, help integrate this figure in accounting cost systems and financial justification models. 掌握了适应各种特定技术的经济模型后, 工业工程师就能够对诸如柔性成本等指标进行度量 并且能够反过来协助将这些数值与会计成本系统和金融论证模型集成起来。

全面质量管理 Total Quality Management TQM is an approach for continuously improving the quality of every aspect of business life, i. e. it is a ever-ending process of improving for individuals, groups of people and the whole organization. It is an integrated approach and set of practices that emphasizes, inter alia, management

commitment, continuous improvement, customer focus, long-range thinking, increased employee involvement and teamwork, employee empowerment, process management, competitive benchmarking, etc. TQM 是一种对商业活动中所有方面的质量进行持续改进的一种方 法, 也就是对个体、群体 和整个的组织进行改良的持续过程。

它 是一种综合方法和实践的运用,尤其重视高层管理 承诺、连续改 进、以客户为中心、长远战略、员工参与和团队合作、员工授权、 流程管理、 竞争标杆管理等等方面。

The present work, based on the thorough review of the prescriptive, conceptual, practitioner and empirical literature on TQM and TQS spanning over 100 articles, identifies 12 dimensions of quality management as critical for the institution of a TQM environment in service organizations. The dimensions that have been identified are as follows: 全面质量服务的临界尺寸 在目前工作的基础上深入回顾全面质量服务和全面质量服 务的 规定性、概念性、实践和经验的文献已经超越了100篇, 确定12维度的质量管理在全面服务 机构作为全面质量管理环 境的重要制度。

已确定的尺寸如下: · management commitment and visionary leadership; · Top Human resource management; · Technical system; · Information and analysis system; · Benchmarking; · Continuous improvement; · Customer focus; · Employee satisfaction; · Union intervention; · Social responsibility; · Servicescapes; · Service culture. · 董事会的承诺和富有远见的 领导 · 人力资源管理 · 技术体系 · 信息和分析系统 · 标杆管 理 · 精益求精 · 顾客至上 · 员工满意度 · 欧盟干预 · 社会责任感 ·服务链 · 服务文化 Per contra, thoug most of these dimensions and other techniques and strategies proposed by various theorists and practitioners, starting from the birth of the quality revolution, seem to provide a near-universal remedy to the problems of the manufacturing business, they are not acomplete yardstick for service quality improvement. 相反, 尽管上述的各种理论家和实践者从质量革命以来所倡导的大部分理论和相关技术和策 略似乎可以提供解决制造领域(质量)问题的灵丹妙药,但它们并不能作为服务业务质量改 善的完全标准。

 
 

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