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 时间:2019-07-07 10:55:31 贡献者:伍彦蓉

导读:英语论文格式模板辅导费发 发到付 发发多 少发多 少是多 少到少 发送到 发多少 多少速 度 19. 懂得如 何避开 问题的 人,胜 过知道 怎样解 决问题 的人。 在这个 世界上 ,不知 道怎么 办

2013英语论文格式范文.doc
2013英语论文格式范文.doc

英语论文格式模板辅导费发 发到付 发发多 少发多 少是多 少到少 发送到 发多少 多少速 度 19. 懂得如 何避开 问题的 人,胜 过知道 怎样解 决问题 的人。

在这个 世界上 ,不知 道怎么 办的时 候,选 择顺其 自然, 也许是 最佳选 择。

胜 出者往 往不是 能力而 是观念 !20. 在家里 看到的 永远是 家,走 出去看 到的才 是世界 。

把钱 放在眼 前,看 到的永 远是钱 ,把钱 放在有 用的地 方,看 到的是 金钱的 世界。

21. 给人金 钱是下 策,给 人能力 是中策 ,给人 观念是 上策。

财富买 不来好 观念, 好观念 能换来 亿万财 富。

世 界上最 大的市 场,是 在人的 脑海里 ! 8.表 面上缺 的是金 钱,本 质上缺 的是观 念,命 运里缺 的是选 择,骨 子里缺 的是勇 气,肚 子里缺 的是知 识,事 业上缺 的是毅 力,行 动上缺 的是改 变!9.落 后是观 念落后 ,贫穷 是脑袋 贫穷。

许多人 ,不是 没有好 机会, 而是没 有好观 念。

不 是不接 受新观 念,而 是不愿 抛弃旧 观念! 10. 信念改 变思维 ,思维 改变心 态,心 态改变 行动, 行动改 变习惯 ,习惯 改变性 格,性 格改变 命运。

要改变 命运, 先确立 信念!11. 心态决 定看世 界的眼 光,行 动决定 生存的 状态。

要想活 出尊严 ,展现 不凡, 只有改 变观念 ,敢于 和命运 抗争! 12. 如果事 情无法 改变, 那就改 变自己 ;如果 无法说 服他人 ,那就 想法说 服自己 。

如果 山过不 来,那 人就过 去!13. 命运不 是放弃 ,而是 努力。

命运不 是运气 ,而是 选择。

命运不 是等待 ,而是 把握。

命运不 是名词 ,而是 动词。

要改变 命运, 先改变 观念! 14. 决定今 天的不 是今天 ,而是 昨天对 人生的 态度; 决定明 天的不 是明天 ,而是 今天对 事业的 作为。

我们的 今天由 过去决 定,我 们的明 天由今 天决定 !篇一:简单版英文论文格式1.题目即标题,它的主要作用是概括整个论文的中心内容。

题目要确切、 恰当、鲜明、简短、精炼。

XXXX(题目:二号,黑体,加粗,居中,除了英语小词外,其他单词 首字母都要大写;另外:除了题目外,论文中所有英文的字体均采用 “Times New Roman”)XX 学院 XX 级

学号 XX XXX 指导老师:XXX(学院、专业、学号、作者姓名、指导教师姓名(小四号宋体字, 加粗),依次排印在论文题目下,上空二行,居中)2.摘要摘要是论文的高度概括,是长篇论文不可缺少的组成部分。

要求 用中、英文分别书写,一篇摘要不少于 200 字。

要注明 3—5 个关键 词。

【Abstract】 XXXX……(英文摘要:上空二行;题目采用五号“Times New Roman”字 体,加粗,置于粗体方括号【】内,顶格放置;随后的内容与前面的 粗体方括号【】之间空一格,不用其他任何标点符号;采用五号“Times New Roman”字体,不加粗;单倍行距。

)3.关键词是标示文献关键主题内容,但尽量少用不规范的主题词或新造

词。

关键词是为了文献标引工作,从论文中选取出来,用以表示全文 主要内容信息款目的单词或术语。

【Key Words】 XX; XX;XX;XX(英文关键词:题目采用五号“Times New Roman”字体,加粗, 两个单词的首字母要大写,置于粗体方括号【】内,顶格放置;随后 的内容与前面的粗体方括号【】之间空一格,不用任何其他标点符号, 采用五号“Times New Roman”字体,不加粗,除了专有名词外,其 他单词的首字母不大写,各单词之间用分号“;”隔开,分号之后空 一格;最后一个关键词之后不用任何标点符号;单倍行距。

)4.正文论文的正文是毕业设计(论文)的主体和核心部分,是作者对自 己的研究工作详细的表述。

1.XX......2.XX......3.XX......

(正文章节序号编制:章的编号:1. ,2., 3.,…;节的编号: 1.1,1.2…,2.1,2.2…;小节的编号为:1.1.1, 1.1.2…。

小节以下 层次,采用希腊数字加括号为序,如(i),(ii)…;之后再采用字 母加括号,如(a), (b),…;每章题目左顶格,小四号字,加粗;每节 (及小节以下)题目左顶格,小四号字,不加粗但要斜体;所有章节 的题目都单独一行,最后不加任何标点符号)5.结论结论包括对整个研究工作进行归纳和综合而得出的结论。

结论集 中反映作者的研究成果,表达作者对所研究课题的见解和主张,是全 文的思想精髓,一般写的概括,篇幅较短。

Conclusion…………….6.参考文献参考文献是对论文引文进行和分析的重要信息源之一,在论 文中所引用、参考过的文献,一般都应列出来。

Bibliography (References) (小四号,加粗,后面不加任何标 点符号)(论文最后的参考文献中所有文献的排列顺序:尾注:按照编号 顺序。

夹注:英文文献----网络文献----汉语文献,各个文献的先后 以作者的姓氏字母或拼音为序,不用单独加序号或编号;每个参考文 献的第二行起必须缩进 4 个英文字符;1.5 倍行距;另外,与文中的 夹注一一对应)篇二:详细版英语论文格式及写作规范语言和内容是评判一篇英语论文质量高低的重要依据;但是,写 作格式规范与否亦是一个不可忽略的衡量标准。

因此,规范英语论文 的格式,使之与国际学术惯例接轨,对我们从事英语教学,英语论文写 作,促进国际学术交流都具有重要意义。

由于英语论文写作规范随学 科不同而各有所异,本文拟就人文类学科英语论文的主要组成部分, 概述美国教育界、学术界通行的人文类英语论文写作规范,以供读者 参考、仿效。

一、英语论文的标题

一篇较长的英语论文(如英语毕业论文)一般都需要标题页,其书 写格式如下:第一行标题与打印纸顶端的距离约为打印纸全长的三分 之一,与下行(通常为 by,居中)的距离则为 5cm,第三、第四行分别为 作者姓名及日期(均居中)。

如果该篇英语论文是学生针对某门课程而 写,则在作者姓名与日期之间还需分别打上教师学衔及其姓名 (如:Dr./Prof.C.Prager)及本门课程的编号或名称(如:English 734 或 British Novel)。

打印时,如无特殊要求,每一行均需 double space, 即隔行打印,行距约为 0.6cm(论文其他部分行距同此)。

就学生而言,如果英语论文篇幅较短,亦可不做标题页(及提纲 页),而将标题页的内容打在正文第一页的左上方。

第一行为作者姓名, 与打印纸顶端距离约为 2.5cm,以下各行依次为教师学衔和姓、课程 编号(或名称)及日期;各行左边上下对齐,并留出 2.5cm 左右的页边 空白(下同)。

接下来便是论文标题及正文(日期与标题之间及标题与 正文第一行之间只需隔行打印,不必留出更多空白)。

二、英语论文提纲英语论文提纲页包括论题句及提纲本身,其规范格式如下:先在 第一行(与打印纸顶端的距离仍为 2.5cm 左右)的始端打上 Thesis 一词及冒号,空一格后再打论题句,回行时左边须与论题句的第一个 字母上下对齐。

主要纲目以大写罗马数字标出,次要纲目则依次用大

写英文字母、阿拉伯数字和小写英文字母标出。

各数字或字母后均为 一句点,空出一格后再打该项内容的第一个字母;处于同一等级的纲 目,其上下行左边必须对齐。

需要注意的是,同等重要的纲目必须是两 个以上,即:有Ⅰ应有Ⅱ,有 A 应有 B,以此类推。

如果英文论文提纲较 长,需两页纸,则第二页须在右上角用小写罗马数字标出页码,即 ii(第一页无需标页码)。

三、英语论文正文有标题页和提纲页的英语论文,其正文第一页的规范格式为:论 文标题居中,其位置距打印纸顶端约 5cm,距正文第一行约 1.5cm。

段 首字母须缩进五格,即从第六格打起。

正文第一页不必标页码(但应计 算其页数),自第二页起,必须在每页的右上角(即空出第一行,在其后 部)打上论文作者的姓,空一格后再用阿拉伯数字标出页码;阿拉伯数 字(或其最后一位)应为该行的最后一个空格。

在打印正文时尚需注意 标点符号的打印格式,即:句末号(句号、问号及感叹号)后应空两格, 其他标点符号后则空一格。

四、英语论文的文中引述正确引用作品原文或专家、学者的论述是写好英语论文的重要环 节;既要注意引述与论文的有机统一,即其逻辑性,又要注意引述格式

(即英语论文参考文献)的规范性。

引述别人的观点,可以直接引用, 也可以间接引用。

无论采用何种方式,论文作者必须注明所引文字的 作者和出处。

目前美国学术界通行的做法是在引文后以圆括弧形式注 明引文作者及出处。

现针对文中引述的不同情况,将部分规范格式分 述如下。

1.若引文不足三行,则可将引文有机地融合在论文中。

如:The divorce of Arnold's personal desire from his inheritance results in “the familiar picture of Victorian man alone in an alien universe”(Roper9).这里,圆括弧中的 Roper 为引文作者的姓(不必注出全名);阿拉 伯数字为引文出处的页码(不要写成 p.9);作者姓与页码之间需空一 格,但不需任何标点符号;句号应置于第二个圆括弧后。

2.被引述的文字如果超过三行,则应将引文与论文文字分开,如 下例所示:Whitman has proved himself an eminent democratic representative and precursor, and his “Democratic Vistas”

is an admirable and characteristic diatribe. And if one is sorry that in it Whitman is unable to conceive the extreme crises of society, one is certain that no society would be tolerable whoses citizens could not find refreshment in its buoyant democratic idealism.(Chase 165) 这里的格式有两点要加以注意。

一是引文各行距英语论文的左边 第一个字母十个空格,即应从第十一格打起;二是引文不需加引号, 末尾的句号应标在最后一个词后。

3.如需在引文中插注,对某些词语加以解释,则要使用方括号(不 可用圆括弧)。

如: Dr.Beaman points out that“he [Charles Darw in] has been

an important factor in the debate between evolutionary theory and biblical creationism”(9).值得注意的是,本例中引文作者的姓已出现在引导句中,故圆括 弧中只需注明引文出处的页码即可。

4.如果拟引用的文字中有与论文无关的词语需要删除,则需用省 略号。

如果省略号出现在引文中则用三个点,如出现在引文末,则用四 个点,最后一点表示句号,置于第二个圆括弧后(一般说来,应避免在 引文开头使用省略号);点与字母之间,或点与点之间都需空一格。

如:Mary Shelley hated tyranny and“looked upon the poor as pathetic victims of the social system and upon the rich and highborn...with undisguised scorn and contempt...(Nitchie 43).5.若引文出自一部多卷书,除注明作者姓和页码外,还需注明卷 号。

如:Professor Chen Jia's A History of English Literature aimed to give Chinese readers “ a historical survey of English literature from its earliest beginnings down to the

20thcentury”(Chen,1:i).圆括弧里的 1 为卷号,小写罗马数字 i 为页码,说明引文出自第 1 卷序言(引言、序言、导言等多使用小写的罗马数字标明页码)。

此外, 书名 A History of English Literature 下划了线;规范的格式是: 书名,包括以成书形式出版的作品名(如《失乐园》)均需划线,或用斜 体字;其他作品,如诗歌、散文、短篇小说等的标题则以双引号标出, 如“To Autumn”及前面出现的“Democratic Vistas”等。

6.如果英语论文中引用了同一作者的两篇或两篇以上的作品,除 注明引文作者及页码外,还要注明作品名。

如:Bacon condemned Platoas “ an obstacle to science ” (Farrington, Philosophy 35).Farrington points out that Aristotle's father Nicomachus, a physician, probably trained his son in medicine(Aristotle 15).这两个例子分别引用了 Farrington 的两部著作,故在各自的圆 括弧中分别注出所引用的书名,以免混淆。

两部作品名均为缩写形式 (如书名太长,在圆括弧中加以注明时均需使用缩写形式),其全名分

别为 Founder of Scientific Philosophy 及 The Philosophy of Francis Baconand Aristotle。

7.评析诗歌常需引用原诗句,其引用格式如下例所示。

When Beowulf dives upwards through the water and reaches the surface,“The surging waves, great tracts of water, / were all cleansed...”(1.1620-21).这里,被引用的诗句以斜线号隔开,斜线号与前后字母及标点符 号间均需空一格;圆括弧中小写的 1 是 line 的缩写;21 不必写成 1621。

如果引用的诗句超过三行,仍需将引用的诗句与论文文字分开 (参见第四项第 2 点内容)。

五、英语论文的文献目录论文作者在正文之后必须提供论文中全部引文的详细出版情况, 即文献目录页。

美国高校一般称此页为 Works Cited, 其格式须注意 下列几点:1.目录页应与正文分开,另页打印,置于正文之后。

2.目录页应视为英语论文的一页,按论文页码的顺序在其右上角 标明论文作者的姓和页码;如果条目较多,不止一页,则第一页不必标 出作者姓和页码(但必须计算页数),其余各页仍按顺序标明作者姓和 页码。

标题 Works Cited 与打印纸顶端的距离约为 2.5cm,与第一条 目中第一行的距离仍为 0.6cm;各条目之间及各行之间的距离亦为 0.6cm,不必留出更多空白。

3.各条目内容顺序分别为作者姓、名、作品名、出版社名称、出 版地、出版年份及起止页码等;各条目应严格按各作者姓的首字母顺 序排列,但不要给各条目编码,也不必将书条与杂志、期刊等条目分 列。

4.各条目第一行需顶格打印,回行时均需缩进五格,以将该条目 与其他条目区分开来。

现将部分较为特殊的条目分列如下,并略加说明,供读者参考。

Two or More Books by the Same AuthorBrooks, Cleanth. Fundamentals of Good Writing: AHandbook of Modern Rhetoric. NewYork: Harcourt, 1950.

---The Hidden God: Studies in Hemingway, Faulkner, Yeats,Eliot, and Warren. New Haven: Yale UP,1963.引用同一作者的多部著作,只需在第一条目中注明该作者姓名, 余下各条目则以三条连字符及一句点代替该作者姓名;各条目须按书 名的第一个词(冠词除外)的字母顺序排列。

An Author with an EditorShake speare, William. The Tragedy of Macbeth. Ed. Louis B.Wright. New York: Washington Square, 1959.本条目将作者 Shakespeare 的姓名排在前面,而将编者姓名(不 颠倒)放在后面,表明引文出自 The Tragedy of Macbeth;如果引文 出自编者写的序言、导言等,则需将编者姓名置前,如:Blackmur, Richard P.Introduction. The Art of the Novel:

Critical Prefaces. By Henry James. New York: Scribner's, 1962.vii-xxxix. 如果引言与著作为同一人所写,则其格式如下例所示(By 后只需 注明作者姓即可): A Selection from an Anthology Abram, M. H.“English Romanticism: The Spirit of the Age.” Romanticism Reconsidered. Ed. Northrop Frye. New York: Columbia UP,1963.63-88. 被引用的英语论文名须用引号标出,并注意将英语论文名后的句 点置于引号内。

条目末尾必须注明该文在选集中的起止页码。

Articles in Journals, Magazines, and Newspapers Otto, Mary L.“Child Abuse: Group Treatment for Parents.”

Personnel and Guidance Journal 62(1984): 336-48.报刊杂志名需划线,但其后不需任何标点符号。

62 为卷号或期号, 如既有卷号,又有期号,则要将二者以句号分开。

如:(3.3);1984 为 出版年份,应置于圆括弧中。

Arnold, Marilgn.“Willa Cather's Nostalgia: A Study inAmbivalance.”Research Studies Mar.1981:23-24,28.月刊或双月刊须同时注明出版年月;23-24,28 表示该文的前一 部分刊于第 23 和 24 两页,后一部分则转至第 28 页。

Gorney, Cynthia.“When the Gorilla Speaks.”Washington Post31 July,1985:B1.引用日报上的英语论文必须同时注明报纸出版的年、月、日。

篇三:范文 英语毕业论文范文Abstract: On the base of the definition of stylistics, this

thesis gives a detailed analysis of some the of stylistic devices used in the famous speech by the well-known American civil rights movement leader Martin Luther King, Jr., and then probes into the stylistic characteristics of speech as a style.Key words: Stylistics, Stylistic devices, analysis, speech.马丁. 路德.金 《我有一个梦》的文体分析 摘 要:本文首先阐述了文体学的定义,并在此基础上对 对美国着名黑人领袖马丁. 路德.金的着名演讲《我有一个梦》中所 使用的文体手段进行了详尽的分析,进而对演讲文体的风格进行了简 要的论述。

关键词:文体学;文体手段;分析;演讲 As an interdisciplinary field of study, stylistics promises to offer useful insights into literary criticism and the teaching of literature with its explicit aims and effective techniques. It is very useful in the analysis of various styles of writing. In this thesis, the author tries to offer a stylistic analysis of the famous speech by Martin Luther king, Jr. I Have a Dream. 1. Introduction: Definition of Stylistics and Stylistic Analysis As far as the definition of stylistics is concerned

different scholars define the branch of study in different ways. Wales defines stylistics simply as “ the study of style” (1989:437), while Widdowson provides a more informative definition as “the study of literary discourse from a linguistic orientation” and takes “a view that what distinguishes stylistics from literary criticism on the one hand and linguistics on the other is that it is essentially a means of linking the two” (1975:3). Leech holds a similar view. He defines stylistics as the “study of the use of language in literature” (1969:1) and considers stylistics a “meeting-ground of linguistics and literary study”(1969:2). From what Widdowson and Leech say, we can see that stylistics is an area of study that straddles two disciplines: literary criticism and linguistics. It takes literary discourse (text) as its object of study and uses linguistics as a means to that end.Stylistic analysis is generally concerned with the uniqueness of a text; that is, what it is that is peculiar to the uses of language in a literary text for delivering the message. This naturally involves comparisons of the language of the text with that used in conventional types of discourse. Stylisticians may also wish to characterize the style of a

literary text by Systematically comparing the language uses in that text with those in another. Halliday points out, “The text may be seen as ‘this’ in contrast with ‘that’, with another poem or another novel; stylistics studies are essentially comparative in nature…”(1971:341). On this points, Widdowson is of the same opinion as Halliday. He says:“All literary appreciation is comparative, as indeed is a recognition of styles in general” (1975:84). Thus, we may conclude that stylistic analysis is an activity that is highly comparative in nature.2. Related Information of the Speech I HAVE A DREAM and Its AuthorMartin Luther King, jr. was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia, the son of a clergyman and the grandson of a slave. After attending several colleges he received his Ph. D. in theology from Boston University in 1955. He led the bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama in 1955-1956. As president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, he then led civil rights demonstrations in many cities. In 1963 he helped organize the march on Washington, which brought together more than 200,000 people. A leader in establishing a nonviolent civil rights movement, King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

for 1964. King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1968, shortly before his fortieth birthday. Since then, he has become an American folk hero, and on November 2, 1983, a law honoring Dr. King was signed by President Rigan, effective January 1986, making the third Monday of January a national holiday. He is the only U. S. citizen other than George Washington to be recognized in this way.In 1863 President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation freeing all slaves in the United States. One hundred years after this decree was signed, however, the life of blacks was still “sadly crippled by the manacles of seGREgation and the Chains discrimination.” On August 28, 1963, a quarter of million people of all races came to Washington, D. C., to show their support for freedom and justice for all Americans, and for black people in particular. At that demonstration, Martin Luther King, jr. delivered this famous speech I HAVE A DREAM, widely regarded as the most eloquent statement of the black people’s dreams and aspirations ever made. In his speech, Dr. King told the world, “I have a dream” that equality would come “to all of God’s children.” He said he wanted everyone to be able to “join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, ‘Free at last! Free at

last!…’” 3. A Stylistic Analysis of the Speech (An analysis of someof the stylistic devices used in the speech) Martin Luther King’s speech of August 28, 1963 is widelyregarded as one of the most powerful ever delivered in the United States. Although this address was delivered orally, it was read from a written text composed with GREat care. It is an example of formal English with a convincing style. Here are some of the stylistic devices (which maybe considered traditionally as rhetorical devices) used by Dr King to inspire and persuade.3.1 Repetition: Throughout the speech, Dr. King repeats words and sentence. This is a very outstanding feature in this speech called repetition. It belongs to the stylistic device of syntactic over-regularity. The term repetition is restricted to mean the case of exact copying of a certain previous unit in a text such as a word, phrase or even a sentence (Leech, 1969), because all the over-regular features in literature are in some sense repetitious. Used in speech, repetition not only makes it easy for the audience to follow what the speaker is saying, but also gives a strong rhythmic quality to the speech and makes

it more memorable. In paragraphs 8 through 16, for example, King uses the words “I have a dream” nine times. This repetition helps to achieve the function of coherence in discourse and the function of reinforcement in mood and emotion, expressing the speaker’s strong emotion of longing for freedom, justice, righteousness and a much more united nation of all of God’s children.If we study the whole speech more carefully, it is easy for us to find many other examples of repetition used.① But one hundred years later, we must face the tragic fact that the Negro is still not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro.② is still sadly crippled by the manacles of seGREgation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land.Here the phrase “one hundred years later” has been repeated three times, seemingly indicating that it is really a long time for the Negro to wait for the coming of the time of justice and righteousness.

②But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the GREat vaults of opportunity of this nation. the phrase “we refuse to believe that…” has been used twice to indicate the speaker’s good hope.③ Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of seGREgation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all of God’s Children. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. (Par.4)In this short passage, the clause “Now is the time to…” has been used four times to emphasize the fierce urgency of “NOW” and to encourage and persuade the blacks to take immediate action to rise above and gain their own rights and freedom.Other examples of repetition can still be easily found throughout the speech. In par. 7, the words “we can never/cannot be satisfied as long as…” has been used as many as five times to show the determination and persistence of the black people; in par. 17, the words “with the faith we will be able to…” has been repeated twice for the purpose of

showing how strong the faith of the black people is to struggle for the brotherhood of “all of God’s children”, and how strong the faith of the black people is to believe that they “will be free one day”. Now let’s enjoy another example.④And if America is to be a GREat nation this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire! Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania!Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado! Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California! But not only that; let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia! Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring. When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city… (Paragraphs 19 through 25),the words “Let Freedom ring…” has been repeated as many as nine times to indicate that it is the whole of the United States rather than any part of it that should be bathed in the sunshine of freedom.

3.2 Use of Parallelism Parallelism is another syntactic over-regularity. Itmeans exact repetition in equivalent positions. It differs from simple repetition in that the identity does not extend to absolute duplication, it “requires some variable feature of the pattern-some contrasting elements which are ‘parallel’ with respect to their position in the pattern”(Leech, 1969:66). To put it simply, parallelism means the balancing of sentence elements that are grammatically equal. To take them parallel, balance nouns with nouns, verbs with verbs, prepositional phrases with prepositional phrases, clauses with clauses, and so forth.In his speech, Martin Luther King uses parallelism to create a strong rhythm to help the audience line up his ideas. Here are few examples:⑤…by the manacles of seGREgation and the chains of discrimination…(Par.2, two parallel noun phrases)⑥“This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drag of gradualism.” (Par.4, two parallel infinitive phrases: “to engage…to take…”)⑦ “ there will be neither rest nor tranquility in America…”(Par. 5, two parallel nouns joined with “neither…

nor”) ⑧“We shall never be satisfied as long as our childrenare stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity…” (Par. 7, two parallel verb phrases)It is traditionally believed that parallelism is used for the purpose of emphasizing and enhancing, esp. in speech, the ideas expressed by the speaker (or author in written versions), thus always encouraging and inspiring the audience. We need not to be very carefully to find out many more examples of parallelism used in King’s speech and classified as is followed:3.2.1 parallel nouns: ⑨This not was a promise that all men would be guaranteedthe inalienable rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. (Par. 3, three parallel nouns as attributive)⑩ 1963 is not an end, but a beginning (Par. 5, two parallel nouns joined with “not…but…”)⑪Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. (Par. 6)⑫…have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny and their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. (Par. 6, two pairs of parallel nouns).

⑬I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment…(Par. 8)⑭…a desert state sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. (Par. 11, two pairs of parallel nouns).3.2.2 Parallel noun phrases: ⑮So we have to came to cash this check-a check that will give as upon demand the riches of freedom and The security of justice. (Par. 4) ⑯I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brother hood (Par. 10) 3.2.3 Parallel infinitive phrases: ⑰It would be fetal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment and to underestimate the determination of the Negro. (Par.5, two parallel infinitive phrases) ⑱With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to straggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. (Par. 7, five parallel infinitive phrases). 3.2.4 Parallel prepositional phrases

⑲I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. (Par. 12)⑳…, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, … (Par. 25)E. Parallel clauses: (21) …, have come to realize that their destiny is tiedup with our destiny and (that) their freedom is inextricably bound t our freedom. (Par. 6, two parallel objective clause)(22) I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough place will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together. (Par. 6, six parallel clauses used as appositions of the noun “dream”).3.3 Use of Similes and Metaphors As two very important types of meaning transference inliterature, similes and metaphors are comparisons that show similarities in things that are basically different, which can be used to add vividness and vitality to writing. As Leech points out, metaphor is associated with a particular rule of transference which may be called the “metaphoric rule” (1969:

151). That is, the figurative meaning is derived from the literal meaning or it is, as it were, the literal meaning.Throughout the speech, King makes extensive use of similes and metaphors. In paragraph 1, for example, King compares The Emancipation Proclamation to two forms of brilliant light cutting through darkness. The first-“a joyous daybreak”-compares it to the sunrise, which (in this case) ends “the long night of captivity”. In paragraph 2, he speaks of “the manacles of seGREgation and the chains of discrimination,” comparing segregation and discrimination under which the Negro people live to the manacles and chains once used on slaves. Therefore, it is very clear that the using of similes and metaphors can definitely add vividness and vitality to writing and make it easy for the readers or audience to understand.Now let’s cite some of the similes and metaphors used in King’s speech.(23) One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. (Par. 2, metaphors)(24) But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient

funds in the GREat vaults of opportunity for this nation (Par.4, metaphors)(25)This is no time … to take the tranquilizing drag of gradualism. (Par. 4, metaphor)(26) This sweltering summer of the Negro’s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. (Par. 5, Metaphors)(27) …we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream. (Par. 7, Similes)(28) …a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers. (Par. 14, Similes)3.4 Use of Contrast Although maybe a rhetorical device instead of astylistic one, contrast has also been used effectively, like repetition, in this speech, achieving the function of making clear the ideas of the speaker. In paragraph l, for example, “GREat beacon light of hope” is contrasted with “flames of withering injustice,” and “joyous daybreak” with long night of captivity.”As it is defined, contrast is used to show the difference

between two things. Therefore, it is not very difficult for us to understand why the speaker king uses so many contrasts in his speech.(29) One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. (Par. 2)(30) Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of seGREgation to the sunlit path of racial justice. (Par. 4)(31) Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood (Par.4)(32) This sweltering summer of the Negro’s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. (Par. 5)(33) 1963 is not an end, but a beginning. (Par. 5) (34) Again and again we must rise to the majestic height of meeting physical force with soul force. (Par. 6) (35) And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead. We cannot turn back. (Par. 7) (36)…the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.(Par. 10)

(37)…a desert state sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. (Par. 11)(38)…where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. (Par. 12)(39) With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. (Par. 17)(40) With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood.

 
 

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